Where are those extra dimensions in the string theory? Rob Knoops at TEDxAUBG

Where are those extra dimensions in the string theory? Rob Knoops at TEDxAUBG


Translator: Maria K.
Reviewer: Queenie Lee What is the smallest thing
you can imagine? A peanut, an atom, this logo? (Laughter) From the chair you are sitting on
to the walls, or even my hands. What are they made of? Of course, in our chemistry classes, they taught us, yet,
this is made of atoms and molecules. But these, in turn, they’re even
made of even smaller particles that we call protons and neutrons,
and there’s electrons going around them. But, we physicists,
we’re smarter than chemists, and I don’t think there’re chemists
in the room; I can say this. And we can look even deeper
into this matter. And we see that even a proton
isn’t the smallest. A proton consists of
even smaller particles called quarks. And at CERN, these are actually the questions
we want to answer. We want to answer three questions: Where do we come from? What are we made of? Where are we going? And there’s actually a fourth question – that’s: What are we having
for dinner tonight? (Laughter) But there are basically two ways
of answering these questions. There’s a first way, that’s by using logic
and thinking about it, and it’s called theoretical physics. And that’s me;
I am a theoretical physicist. And another way is to make
your hands dirty and to do experiments. And somewhere along the line, the theory
and the experiment should agree. Now, how does one exactly
do an experiment? How does one try to figure out
what’s inside an atom? How does one figure out
what’s inside a proton? There’s not a single microscope
strong enough to look that deep. Well, the way we do this
is we take two protons and we smash them together
as hard as we can. Then, from all the pieces that come out,
we try to figure out what happens. Now, while doing this, there’s something
really interesting, what happens, and that is that some of the pieces
that come out of this collision were not even in there in the first place. So by hitting protons together
very, very, very fast you can actually create new matter. And one of the things
that we might hope to do is that some of the particles
that get created in these collisions, that’s something that
we don’t know yet what it is, that we maybe have found, like,
a new building block of nature. Now, how is this done in practice at CERN? We have this huge tunnel
called the Large Hadron Collider, and we use this to give an incredible
speed to protons before they are collided. And to give you an idea how fast
these protons go in this tunnel, at top speeds, they would
go around the Earth about seven and a half times per second. That’s huge. But anyway, (Laughter) I’m a theoretical physicist, so this is for engineers
and experimentalists to worry about. I’m here to talk about theoretical stuff. So what we get to do is we get to think about
what we don’t understand yet. And one of the things
that we don’t understand is, for example, when the astronomers, when they take their telescope
and they look into the sky, and they see that the star
is moving away from us, they take their telescope,
they look into another direction, and this star is moving
away from us as well. And suddenly they noticed
that all the stars in the universe are moving away, so the universe seems to be expanding. But this is okay, I mean, somewhere in the past,
there was a big bang, and the universe started to expand. But then they looked closer,
and they noticed something strange. The universe seemed to be expanding
at an accelerating rate. That means that the stars are moving
faster and faster and faster away from us. Now why is this strange? You would expect that since the universe,
the galaxies, our solar system, it’s all made of matter. So something like gravity
would be able to pull it back together. But actually, the opposite
thing is happening. There’s something
pulling the universe apart. And we don’t really understand
how this works, so what we then do in physics
is we give a fancy name to it. And we call this thing pulling it apart,
we called “dark energy.” And there’s one way that we don’t know
how to describe it very well, but we can put a number to this, like,
“Do you know how strong this is?” And this number, we call
the cosmological constant. Why am I saying this? I will need it later. So remember “cosmological constant.” Now, one really
strange thing about gravity is that we don’t really know how it works. And this might sound strange to you,
because, of course, some long time ago, Newton, he found out,
oh, the apple falls down a tree. Or we understand by the laws
of general relativity of Einstein how the Earth goes around the Sun. But if you were to zoom in, in gravity,
you look at it very closely, then we don’t really know how it works. Yeah, you might have noticed, I’m the guy that’s going
to talk about nerdy all the time. Let me compare this to light, for example. If you zoom in on light waves, then you see, like, very little
particles called photons. And the exact same thing, we don’t know how
to describe it for gravity. That’s an open question; we don’t know. Well, actually, there are a lot of ideas. Because I mean, if we don’t know, someone has an idea,
another person has an idea. And there’s only one idea
I would like to talk about today. And it’s called string theory. Of course, at some point along the way,
this is still an idea until somewhere in the future
we might find an experiment that says, okay, this is the right way
or you guys are completely crazy, that something else is the truth. So string theory says that if you
would zoom in, in matter, and you look very, very, very closely that you would see that matter
consists of little vibrating strings. And like all the notes on a guitar,
you can play different notes of music, the different notes on these strings would correspond to all the different
particles we can see in the universe. So the basic building blocks of nature
would be these little strings. But then, something strange happens. When this theory has to be consistent, at least, for mathematicians –
and mathematicians are very smart – if they tell you
something is true, it’s true. And they tell us that this theory
only makes sense if the universe is made of ten dimensions. Now, what is a dimension? Well, I have an “x” dimension,
a “y” dimension, and a “z” dimension. And that’s three. And we physicists, we like to call time
a dimension as well. So, let’s say we have four dimensions
that we can see in this room, which means that
if string theory were to be true and the universe is ten-dimensional, where are those six extra dimensions? Well, we think that the solution
is that they are rolled up, and they’re so small
that we cannot see them. Now, let me explain this a bit better. Imagine I were a little ant,
and I went to walk around on this bottle. I can walk around clockwise
or counterclockwise. And at some point, I will end up
at the same point again. This is one of the rolled-up dimensions. Well, in the other direction,
imagine this bottle being much longer, this ant can keep walking
for a much longer time. Now, the idea is that the extra
dimensions, they are rolled-up, and they’re so small
that we cannot see them, not even with the best
experiment that we have. Not even the LHC has been able to notice
that the extra dimensions are there. Actually, they have been looking
for extra dimensions at the LHC, but I think that chances are quite small
that they will find them. But don’t tell this to my employer. (Laughter) So we have these extra dimensions
that are rolled up. And that gives room
for us theorists to think: How are they rolled up? I mean, of course, for example,
I want to roll up two dimensions. And I can make a bowling ball. I can walk in this direction,
this direction, and I will end up at the same spot again. So it’s okay; two dimensions
are rolled up. But then, I can also make a doughnut. It’s something completely different. But it’s also two dimensions rolled up. Or I can think of even something
more complicated, a pretzel, for example. And mathematicians, they come up
with even more complex stuff, like they call Calabi–Yau manifolds,
but let’s not go in that direction. And then you can even
just think about how complex, how many possibilities there are if you want to roll up
the six extra dimensions. And some very smart people
have put a number to this. And it seems that there’s
more possibilities to roll up these six extra dimensions
than there are particles in the universe. So we have huge ideas that we can choose from, like how can they look like. And then the interesting thing is that for every different configuration
of these extra dimensions, the laws of physics
and the four dimensions that we know change. So, somehow, our goal is, if you want to make sense
of string theory, to find configurations
of these extra dimensions, so that the laws of nature
that come out of string theory correspond to the laws of nature
that we can find here, in this room. And what I’ve been doing
in the last months is exactly this cosmological constant. I’ve been trying
to find some configurations, which reproduce the cosmological constant, like we think it is, like the experimentalists tell us it is. To give you a heads-up,
I haven’t found it yet. (Laughter) But some day maybe. But have you noticed anything? I started talking about
the smallest of the smallest. I was interested in
what is the universe made of, what are the basic
building blocks of the universe, and I ended up talking about something
as big as the universe itself. So, somewhere, the smallest of the smallest
and the biggest of the biggest seem to be related. If we want to understand
these basic building blocks of nature, we have to understand
the universe as a whole, or vice versa. If we want to understand
the universe as a whole, we’d better try to understand what the basic building
blocks of nature are. Let me compare this to something
that happened in the past. People have been wondering
how the Sun gets its energy for ages before we found out. It was only until we managed
to understand nuclear interactions that we managed to understand
how to apply these nuclear reactions like the smallest nuclear interactions between something as small as an atom
and something as big as a Sun, how we found out how this works. So maybe someday, we can look
even deeper in matter to find out about something
even bigger than the Sun, about something
as big as the universe itself. Thank you. (Applause)

74 comments / Add your comment below

  1. very non informative talk. If you know what is he talking about, then you wasted your time, because there is nothing new. If you don't know what he is talking about, then you still wasted your time because he didn't explain it in a way you could understand. I'm not saying that this guy doesn't know what he's talking about, but that the talk was useless.

  2. Still, I think he had a good shot at explaining this. This is probably the hardest subject in the "universe" to teach.

  3. "emm… I'm a Teoretical Physicist, and so I'm smarter than everyone here…"

    This ordinary guy is an egotistical asshole. Unsub-fuckin-scribed.

  4. String Theory is wrong- WHY THEORY is right https://www.amazon.com/Why-Theory-Everyone-Understand-Einstein/dp/1533329915/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1471561383&sr=8-1&keywords=why+theory

  5. if nature of space, time and direction is relative. then ¿where is the clear idea of dimensions? comonly persived one :V…!! i always suspected that fisics is no really studing the reallity it self. it is studing what and how reality affect us as coexitencial common part of been that we share a very big basic states. the kind of really out side reality will allway be there not depending necesary what we can percept whit 5 ssence and not depend what we just like to interpretation os stuff happening mean math is a kind of true idea of reflexion stuff from auside of we know as dimension that we are stik 100% in relevance. and reality in the integryti of outside our influence should be very tiny part not with so much paradox. fisic is just about the result of the relevance of any thing to us. no the whos happening thing. no mather how hard fisics try the cant much up with same armony as matematiciasn with geometry agebra etc etc. becouse se only look the reflexion of out side from inside tangeble own body perspective and the part of the perseption can be always logics , cant be alway explained just with his own resouse. the bigest limits part cant match good as less limit parts of one.

  6. I like it so much, especially, the example at the last of the speech. It is an amazing logic, if we can understand the small things then we may get a better understanding of big things, then smaller things, then bigger things, then the smallest thing and the biggest thing, vice versa.

  7. Bad title. He didn't get anywhere near the answer. String theory (and the extension called 'Brane theory') have, as yet, no power of prediction – which all good models should have. String theory does propound the 'Many Worlds' idea, but, as yet, we have no evidence.

  8. I had to stop at 44… when you said "us fizz assist" (discovery comes mostly from observation of the world we live in and usually "sigh and Gists" Scientist… are smarter… do you even know the difference between Smart and wise. There's an old adage that states the difference and your a little self conceited to make such a statement, HOWEVER the theory of relativity states that neither of us are wrong, and or right. If anyone thinks they have the answer to my so called riddle.. or saying prey tell and I'll tell you if your correct or not. It's something that I was told that I like!! Miles of Smiles. BTW I will try to get back to your talk to hear what you have to say, I'd like to see a revision on your comment as you know it was a public video going online. I'm not a chemist, I'm much more than that and I don't have to prove my knowledge just talk to me and ask me questions before you assume I'm not smart. "Don't judge a book by it's cover." Were did you go to school as they should of taught you the difference between the two. I teach and I am still learning~!~

  9. Oh, Rob Knoops, we should meet. You can teach me about what you see and I can tell you what I see. Now after we get that out of the way we can take care of the Hearing problem in this country. I'll tell you what I hear, and you can tell me what you hear,… after we come to an agreement on things we move on to Touch… I won't touch you and you won't touch me, unless otherwise specified, eg as in a Hand Shake,… however I study Kung Fu and prefer the "umong the 4 oceans, we are all brothers" version better than a hand shake and it has nothing to do with anything short of what it represents lol…etc… back to topic.. after we cover all that, the next thing I'd say is.. lets get some good food and relax, shoot some billiards and continue discussing life. We're so caught up in trying to find out why were here that we actually miss the answer. We're here to experience.

  10. I'm writing a piece on the quantum physics and I'm doing a lot of research about this subject, and what strikes me is how difficult it is to explain something that we simply can't get our mind around. I have even more respect now for people like Einstein that knew how to write something down and explain it so that people would understand it, even though he was talking about things nobody ever thought of before. If you are bored and want to stay busy, try explaining to people what Quantum physics are to us and how we can use it in real life. I bet you never get an end to the conversation that follows.

  11. I believe that String Theory is losing its supporters, thelack of any means of making testable predictions has not helped but I think the killer blow came from the failure of the LHC to detect a single Supersymmetrical Particle ( an important component of String Theory )
    Faith in a concept , irrespective of the beauty in the Maths, can only sustain endeavour for a certain amount of time, proof and Peer-reviewd evidence are vital but sadly lacking here..

    P.S- I think the thing about "extra dimensions" is highly suspect, too- np better, to all intents and purposes than invoking a deity.

  12. he seems to talk down the experimentalists and engineers. theorist is not the only one but the part of people who study with same purpose. so sad about this viewpoint.

  13. Rolled up? Those ants crawling around the dimensions we know, are just like barnacles on a ship. They're still part of the dimensions we know. Unknown dimensions must be different than either space or time,; those are accounted for. Instead of trying to baffle us with mumbo-jumbo, how about labeling those theoretical-math values so we know what the numbers represent? Science relies on measurements, but those measurements represent something. What exactly is that something?

  14. String theorists will never reach an answer because they are essentially asking, why did the programmer make the program that way? The obvious answer to that is because that's the way they wanted it to work. Instead, hack the program, Star Trek style.

  15. The expansion of the universe is not considered a cosmological constant because the expansion of space between galaxies increases exponentially with distance. Einstein's cosmological constant was zero (0), meaning it was not a value that increased (+1) and it was not a value which decreased (-1) it was a constant, unchanging, zero. Recently measurements taken of two different galaxies a few billion light years apart at the same distance from our perspective were found to be moving away from us at different velocities. Thus astrophysicists concluded that space not only expands exponentially with distance but the expansion rate was not a constant everywhere. The Hubble constant, which I believe he is referring to as the cosmological constant 500 km/s/Mpc, was shown to be in error. The rate at which space is expanding is not the same everywhere.

  16. So, the analysis of the gravitational waves detected by LIGO proved those extra dimensions DO NOT EXIST…can we all just agree now that string "theory" its a scam and a job program???

  17. I was disappointed. I did not understand string theory before watching this and I still don't. He said he would explain the cosmological constant, but he never got back to it.

  18. At one of the Transformer movies was said that there are more than 16 dimensions…..Advanced robots such as Autobots seems to be smarter than us by far so the statement should be right.

  19. We’ll never be able to understand dimensions because we can only use our limited capabilities to interpret. Actually, the Magoo theory!!! Lol.

  20. The universe is getting away from us faster and faster you say? Must be all this negativity in the air. The universe does hate us

  21. I can't stand mathmatics… it's just there for them to better understand… or for anyone and it's really ridiculous the way they use it to insult the real working community…

  22. Theoretical physicists killed true, experimental and repeatable science and created "scientism", which is just another form of religion. Look a bit deeper into the theories of the shill called Einstein. Luckily there are still real scientists out there, next to these peer controlled parrots! Poor humanity… Astronomers are one of the worse kind of these so called scientists. When your measurements differ 10^120 from your calculated predictions, maybe it's time to look for another job, not? All I heard were age old concepts that have been proven to be wrong for a long time now. But you do have to keep an open mind to see them between all the mainstream nonsensical "sciences"…

  23. Where did Gravity come from?
    How is Gravity generated?
    If Gravity suddenly stops in the universe what would happen?
    If the universe is expanding does this means that it is room for the universe to grow and grow?
    Is there anything in space that ( do not move, just stay still)?
    The universe is expanding in 360 directions right so do we look at the expanding universe in all directions?
    Which direction is the Milky Way going?
    Is there any direction in the universe?
    Supernaturally, God lives in heaven which is in a different dimensions. What kind of dimension is it and so far God proved that only spirit form can travel to different dimensions. Science fiction proved solid 3 or 4 dimensional matter can travel to other dimensions

  24. Why do we insist that logic is the way to approach finding the truth of how existence exists. To insist on reason and logic is to limit the truth to have to fit within out limited minds. If we had admit that our universe is ever expanding, we find that it must be infinite in nature. If we crossed all of creation now, we would come to where it ended when we measured it and find there is still alot left to go because it got bigger. This is the nature of infinity and seems to be the nature of the universe. There's so much that string theory isn't taking into account however. They are trying, I give them credit but we have to throw away logic and reason if we are ever to attempt to understand infinite creation

  25. At least 12 dimensions reside in the book "Hands of Light" written by the physicist Barbara Brennan.

  26. What if we are a gathering of molecules stair stepping upwards through dimensions, or maybe i'm just watching this on shrooms thinking way too deep.. Who knows

  27. why dont scientists just try to learn from spiritualists..spiritualists explain this much better and more accurately too.

  28. SO SMASHING TWO PARTICLES TOGETHER MAKES THE "LITTLE BANG THEORY"? ISN'T THAT IN A WAY WHAT THE "BIG BANG THEORY" WAS? SO NOW, YOU'VE RECREATED IT IN THE LAB…NOW WHAT MAD SCIENTIST? ISN'T THE NEXT STEP DESTROYING THE UNIVERSE TO GET A BIGGER ONE? I LIVE HERE, YA KNOW…GET YOUR OWN HAND-BASKET!

  29. Just Maybe the Universe is not being PULLED apart by dark forces but EXPANDING/GROWING larger NATURALLY with the thoughtful creations of mankind. If our 3D world and all the 4 dimensions we know of have acommon characteristics why do the other 6 have to as well. Maybe in the 5th dimension we only need a soul body and can levitate and much more. Maybe in the 6th dimension we can create our own reality each and every one of us..or maybe in the 7th dimension we don't want this kind of 3D reality and just want a spiritual existance, and it goes on and on. If we have a curtain or veil between the dimensions no matter how many there are…I believe it is been lifted or becoming more transparent. Other matter or life forms/being from other dimensions are more highly evolved and can manipulate or so called MATRIX. They can manipulate light, energy and matter here on our 3D realm come in an out whenever they want. I feel nobody is going to get the BIG ANSWER to creation until they reach the OTHER SIDE and that usually comes with dying or being so highly evolved you are already in the 5th dimension and still here in our 3D reality on earth. If dimensions are rolled, I feel they are unrolling and the matter/energy from these dimension is overlapping in the atmosphere of our 3D reality here on earth right now. Being everything on this planet from the life forms to the what was created, ie houses cars etc is just pure energy vibrating and being held together appearing to be solid, then everything we know is connected. EVERYTHING We destroy the world we destroy the whole Universal creation…My thoughts..

  30. Well, great TED moment but I am still lost. Thank you for explaining. Very interesting topic. So difficult to explain and visualize.

  31. Where are those extra dimensions? Probably nowhere except on paper as part of the wrong theoretical model. So far they have certainly not shown themselves in experiments.

  32. Every point is the center of the universe

    the center of the universe is the nucleus of the consciousness.

    the universe is an orbital around the nucleus.

    life is a sub orbital inside the universe

    The form of consciousness is like an ATOM.
    The form of the universe is like an ATOM to.
    It is a fractal.
    the universe is an orbital inside the consciousness .
    around the center of the universe exists the general.
    life is an orbital inside the universe.
    deep inside life exists man.

    the universe is an orbital around man

    reason is an energy level that man orientates towards
    The elements of reason are the concepts
    consciousness is much deeper than reason
    reason is only the surface

    reason lies like a layer on the outside

    In the future, the diagnosis system in psychiatry will look like the periodic system in the chemistry

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