What is a Sentence (Continued)

What is a Sentence (Continued)


Hello friends. So, this is one of our introductory classes. Although, I have already due when we were
talking about introduction that, what is meant by a Sentence and that we are going to do
sentence also. Sentence of course, since we are going to
write and speak and read sentence and how a sentence is constructed is extremely important
for us to know. Now, in introduction I had told you that I
am going to cover sentence and also what goes into the making of a sentence. Perhaps you will find that I am repeating
here some of the things that I have already mentioned but please understand that these
things are necessary for us because I would like to reinforce the importance of, what
is a the sentence? How is a sentence constructed? What are the units of a sentence? So, therefore, even if you find some repetition,
please do not get disturbed. I am not being redundant I am just trying
to reinforce whatever is going on. So, throughout these classes you will find
that what has been discussed once will emerge again but this is something that we are just
going to move from basic to more advanced and more complex. So, today’s class is all about sentence,
what is a sentence? I am going to look at first the basic of sentence;
what is a simple compound and complex sentence is very important for you to write and speak
and read English. So, perhaps some of you are already aware
of it at school level, at secondary school level, you have done it but I am just trying
to repeat and I am trying to cater it to your needs, basically. We will also look at, what is phrase? And, what is a clause? Now, what is a sentence? We already know what are parts of speech? You have noun and you have pronoun and you
have verbs and adverbs, you have adjectives, right. So, prepositions, conjunctions, those are
parts of speech. Sentence is a group of words and phrases. Sentence is not a word, it is a group of words
and phrases and all those words, sentences and all that things that we have already done,
and they become a part of sentence. So, we know what is a noun, we have seen various
parts of speech, so this is a group of all those words that are brought together; that
is a sentence for extremely important a sentence should make sense. Now, we are talking about academic purposes,
technical writing and not creative writing. So, therefore, we have to understand how good
sentence is constructed in creative writing and in more, poetic kind of writing, you can
take all sorts of liberties not what we are doing here. Now, there are three types of sentences as
we have already talked about, so, Simple Sentence. Let me give you an example, A is taller than
B. How many verbs? How many verbs? Only one, ‘is’ this is the be-type of verb;
is, am, was, were, right; the be -type. We have done the auxiliaries, we have done
models, we know what is be, what is have. So, we are taking about a sentence and this
is, there is only one kind of a one verb here, the be -type verb and taller is a comparative
adjective. Then again it is a degree of comparison, it
is a word and then A and B can be replaced with anything; twin towers is a tall building,
taller than and you can look at xyz building, compare it. These can be replaced. Finally, Qutub Minar a tall building and you
can write anything taller than xyz building, whatever you want to. Main thing to remember here is, a simple sentence
has just one main verb; just one verb. Now, if I give you a little more challenging
sentence without the be form of it, let’s say, ‘He studies a engineering’, you have
just one verb in it, studies, so simple sentence. ‘He’ is your noun, in the noun phrase you
use a pronoun, ‘studies’ becomes your verb, the main verb ‘engineering’ is a noun again. So, now, they contain a single clause and
a single verb. I would like you to read this particular slide,
please take a look at the slide and look at the passage. Look at the passage, I will read it out for
you; you have to identify a simple sentence or if there are more than one, then let us
talk about that also. I would like to understand, if you understand
what is basically a good simple sentence? Let me read it out for you, People in the
watch business often say that the “industry is very small.” That isn’t not because the multi-billion
dollar or a year watch sales market is insignificant, but rather that a few keys stakeholders more
or less control the business. To be a successful watch company in modern
times, a company often needs help. Help with what you ask? That is a good question. Brands today are faced with a multitude of
complex challenges ranging from getting the right parts from suppliers, to product distribution
across many countries, and expensive advertising initiatives. Identify the simple sentence, which has one
main verb, one main clause, one main verb. You will come across; you will find only one
sentence ‘that is a good question’, ‘that is a good question’, the only one verb in
it. You have one noun and a noun phrase ‘a good
question’ that is a good question. So, that is your simple sentence. So, look at the variety of the sentences used
here, tremendous variety you have complex, you have compound, you have clauses within
clauses, so, a wonderfully constructed passage just one simple sentence. Now, coming to compound sentences; what are
Compound sentences? These contain two or more coordinate main
clauses, but no subordinate clause. Subordinate clause as the name suggests depends
on the main clause. Here you will find, it is stands on it’s
is own, I will give an example soon. A compound sentence is a balance sentence,
the clauses are carefully arranged to support one another in a structure and meaning. Attributed to seizure I suppose; I came, I
saw, I conquered, 3 verbs; all clauses stand independently. It is not like the meaning will get affected,
with the, even if you remove any other clauses, and, 3 clauses each with an independent verb
and not dependent on any other part of the sentence. I will give you more day to day kind of a
sentence ‘Milk boiled for a while, and it spilled all over the place.’ There are two sentences at a work here, milk
boiled for a while comma and spilled all over the place, what is spilled? Milk spilled; so, just you have to insert
one milk and you have another sentence, milk spilled all over the place, two sentences. ‘My brother came back from the play ground
and he was bruised.’ ‘My brother came back from the play ground,
my brother was bruised’, two sentences of equal structure, equally structure. Look at this slide, please read on I would
like you to identify compound sentences, let me read the passage for you, again the same
passage, People in the watch business often say that the “industry is very small.” That isn’t not because the multi-billion
dollar a year watch sales market is insignificant, but rather that a few keys stake holders more
or less control the business. To be a successful watch company in modern
times, a company often needs help. Help with what you may ask? That is a good question. Brands today are faced with a multitude of
complex challenges ranging from getting the right parts from suppliers, to product distribution
across many countries, and expensive advertising initiatives. Now, look at the last sentence doesn’t not
it strike you as a very complex complicated sentence, but if you try to break it into
2 parts ‘brands today are faced with a multitude of a complex challenges ranging from getting
the right parts from suppliers to product distribution across many countries’, today
countries full stop brands need expensive advertising initiatives. Now, it gives an impression that it may be
a good compound sentence, but where is the verb here, so we do not have it, alright. Let us move on again, that is not because
first sentence; ‘people in the watch business often say that the industry is very small’,
can you have a compound sentence here, No. That isn’t not because the multi-billion
dollar a year watch sales market is insignificant, but rather than a few key stakeholders more
or less control the business. To be a successful watch company in modern
times a company often needs help. ‘To be a successful watch company in modern
times’, let us try to break this one, full stop to be successful a company often needs
help, do you think this sentence can pass of as a compound sentence. Let us look at and break it again; to be a
successful watch company in modern times, now if you break it what happens to the first
clause. So, again we do not have a very convincing
compound sentence here. This is the way you need to break certain
kinds of. So, you need to have some basic understanding,
what happens to the other clause? Even if I try to insert the noun phrase somewhere
in the second half or first half would the meaning be clear; we do not find it happening
here. Now, this passage that we have just done is
a very good example of having several very strong complex sentences. And, what is a complex sentence? Complex sentences contain subordinate clauses,
again I will say for example, same thing that we have already done the previous sentence,
“the milk boiled and spilled over although she was told not to boil it.’ Now, although she was told not to boil it,
this part does not make sentence or sense on it is own it needs the main part, main
clause; the milk boiled in and spilled over. So, the other half, it may have a verb of
it is own, but doesn’t not make much sense without the first part. Look at the slide here; I am giving you some
good examples of complex sentences. Please take a look. Having said that, a brand like Rolex is totally
independent and often regarded as the most important name in luxury watch making. That is one sentence. Second sentence a little bit more complicated. Since the 1980s and the “quartz crisis” and
then you have here much discussed, much analyzed parenthesis (that really change the way traditional
watch companies do business), what changed? Quartz crisis, I am just going to digress
a bit. Parenthesis is a something that we often use,
but why do we use? We give extra information and even if you
remove it, it may not give us elaborate explanation of what preceded it, the material that just
preceded it, but the sentence would still make sense. So, even if you remove this parenthetic material
you will find it doesn’t not really make much of a difference. Yes, it does, in a sense in a way that we
get more explanation here. So, it is a good elaboration. However, we use parenthesis to mark off material
that we may not really, we can actually do away with. So, the wristwatch landscape is increasingly
populated by big brands that are often independent of large multinational groups. Look at it, so many things happening here;
varieties of verbs and all depend on the wristwatch landscape. That is the main clause here that can be one
of the main clauses here. And independently owned companies, which can
compete on an international level with the “big boys” are becoming more and more
rare. Independently owned companies which can, so
again you find that the very structure of the sentence is such that is complex, there
is no room for any simplicity here, so it is not a simple sentence and definitely not
a compound sentence. Try to break it, but it will be very hard. Now, we will talk more about clauses in detail. In today’s class, I will be talking about
a little about relative clause in particular because that something that you often need,
most of us need in our day to day speech and in our writings, a good understanding of relative
clause. But, before that, let’s us move on to discuss
something else that is phrase. So, after words that are the basic units of
a sentence you get phrase, phrase may not have verb of it is own, rarely, but phrase
does not contain a verb of its own and it is completely dependent on the main clause
in order to make some sense otherwise, it just remains a group of words. So, what is Phrase? Phrase is generally a group of words that
make a unit, a phrase within a sentence has a specific function. Now, consider a sentence like, a wire is made
of platinum; a wire is made of platinum; a wire is made of silver also, but let us talk
about platinum wire. Now, this is
of course, your auxiliary made. So, you have the verb here. So, you have the verb phrase and this is your
noun phrase and this is your preposition phrase. So, these are the way you analyze phrases,
if you look at it, if you look at another sentence. A balloon is filled with gas. ‘A balloon’ is your noun phrase, ‘is filled’
is your verb phrase, two verbs happening and ‘with gas’ becomes your prepositional phrase. Why? Because, you have ‘with’ there and why is
this a prepositional phrase? Because, it has off here; if you break it
further, then you get one preposition and one noun. Let us talk about 2 noun phrases. Let us have a sentence like, The boy picked
pigged the puppy; the boy picked pigged the puppy. So, ‘the boy’ is your noun phrase, ‘picked’
‘pigged’ is your main verb, ‘the puppy’ is again your noun phrase. So, that is a phrase. Independently, they just remained words or
a unit. Now, we have had been talking about clauses
and we talked about clauses particularly, in relation with compound and complex sentences. Now, there are 3 kinds of clauses; one is
and very important clause Relative clause, these usually follow nouns and affects their
meanings in an adjective like way therefore relative. They are introduced by relative pronouns such
as, ‘who’ or ‘which’. That are the main but sometimes we use that
also of course. Adverbial clauses, second clauses are those
clauses that like adverbs influence the verb, they qualify the verb, ‘walk fast’, ‘eat
fast’, ‘sleep well’ well is an adverb. So, they define the quality of the verb. Work quietly, read quietly, don’t not make
noise most of these ‘ly’ ending are adverbs. So, again adverbial clauses what are they? They influence the verb; some clauses exist
without full verbs. Now, a sentence like, ‘While walking on the
road we were startled by the horn’, while walking on the road, so here is the clause,
we were startled by the horn. Now, while walking on the road; ‘walking’
is a verb, but here it is not a full verb. What is the full verb? We were startled by the horn. You have clauses like these also. Let me give another sentence, ‘There was the
professor sitting at his desk and arguing over the phone.’ So you have verbs ‘sitting’, ‘arguing’, but
there was the professor ‘was’ is the main verb and these verbs are like more non-finite
kind of verbs, which we will talk about later. Let us look at this particular passage here
and look at the number of clauses. Look at the kinds of clauses that are existing. When talking about fans today, we usually
refer to the exquisite folding fan, which is said to be introduced to China from Japan
during the late Song Dynasty. It is rumored that the Japanese invented the
folding fan after being inspired by bat’s wings. As this fan could be easily folded and carried,
it soon came into fashion. Compared to other types of fan, the folding
fans are more like a piece of handicrafts. The ribs of folding fans were made from valuable
materials, such as hawks-bill turtle, ox horn, ebony, mottled bamboo, elephant trunk and
jadeite, carved into different shapes, for example a grasshopper’s legs. And the different sizes of folding fans are
classified by the numbers of ribs the fan has, usually seven, nine, 12, 14, 16 or 18. Look at the number of clauses; it has a huge
and a wide variety. Now, coming back to relative clause; a relative
clause as we have already talked about, it functions like an adjective and it gives more
information about someone or something referred to in a main clause. Let me give you an example, ‘A disease that
is caused by a virus is difficult to diagnose.’ A disease that is caused by a virus is difficult
to diagnose; it gives you a little more information about the disease, disease that is caused
by a virus. ‘A wire which is made of platinum is very
expensive.’ A wire which is made of platinum is very expensive,
little bit more information about the wire. I have done some examples for you, please
read this slide. Look at these sentences here. A plane which is 500 seated is currently not
ready for flight. The theory that there is life on Mars is an
interesting one. A balloon that is filled with gas can rise
off the ground. He showed me the pearls which he brought from
Canada, which pearls? Those pearls which he brought from Canada;
now, relatives clauses and I am giving you this exercise, please look at the slide. Join the two sentences using ‘who’ and ‘which’. A mug is dropped on a floor it breaks into
several pieces. ‘A mug which is dropped on a floor breaks
into several pieces’. Some inventions define the 1920’s. They are all about entertainment and convenience. ‘Some inventions which defined or that define
the 20’s are all about entertainment and convenience’, you will have to remove ‘they’. So, good referencing is also a part of good
writing. The internet is a network of computers. It covers the entire planet allowing people
to access all that. So, how do we join? ‘The internet which is a network of computer
covers the entire planet allowing people to access any piece of information they desire
from all corners of the world’. The computer and I will solve it for you,
which is a complex machine has the ability to store vast collections of information. Now, look at these sentences and try to do
them on your own. I will read that out. There are refrigeration trucks. They have changed our eating habits as we
now have easy access to fresh foods even in the hottest and driest summer months. William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon
in 1564. He is considered to be the greatest writer
in the English language. William Shakespeare who was born in his Stratford-upon-Avon
in 1564 is considered to be the greatest writer in the English language. Last one, Charles Darwin was an English natural
scientist. He laid down a frame work for the theory of
evolution, showing how man evolved from lower life forms. How do we do it? ‘Charles Darwin who was an English natural
scientist laid down a frame work for the theory of evolution, showing how man evolved from
lower life forms’. Next line, please look at it. Confucius was a wise sage, who sought to educate
his fellow citizens on the ancient wisdom of moral precepts. Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield’s have
invented magnetic resonance imaging, which has transformed almost every area of surgery
allowing doctors to see inside a patient’s body without cutting it open first. So, that is relative clauses for you using
‘who’ and ‘which’ and ‘that’. Take a look at this particular passage. I would like you to identify the relative
clause. The event that caused America to take a vow
against participating in any war ever. The great depression of the early the twentieth
century was a crunch so bad, a loaf of bread in Germany cost some 12000 Euros at one point
of time. Needless to say, there were many deaths, mostly
suicides and many nations on the verge of bankruptcy. An event which caused families to go without
food for many days, The Great Depression. Look at the last sentence, very good example
of higher order kind of writing. You see the main clause; sorry, the main noun
phrase comes at the fag-end of the sentence. ‘An event which cost’ and this is your relative
clause. Now, from here let me do some reading, reading
passage for you, before we wind up. So, let us look at this passage and this passage
will be followed by some very simple comprehension exercises. When you identify a salinity problem during
the growing season, it is recommended to flush the field, even if it means risking some crop
damage, rather than allowing further deterioration of the crop due to salinity. Flushing applications should be carefully
planned according to the crop conditions and growth stage. In light soils, we should drain easily the
impact of flushing on the crop is usually insignificant. Please read the next line. In heavy soils, water infiltration and drainage
problems may be encountered resulting in excess of water and lack of air to the roots. Flushing heavy soil is a prolonged process
and it is final result is difficult to anticipate in advance. Therefore, extra care should be taken when
growing on heavy soils, as to not reach salinity buildup at all, or at least identify the problem
early enough, when salts levels are still relatively easy to flush. If all else fails and flushing is the chosen
course of action, in heavier soils not more than the maximal water amount that can be
absorbed by the soil should be applied and the longest interval possible should be maintained. In the meantime, fertilization should be based
only on Nitrogen and only the minimum amount should be applied. The water used for flushing should be the
highest quality possible, because the purpose of the flushing process is to decrease the
soil salinity to the levels of the irrigation water. Please look at these questions. First question, what does the writer suggest
doing on first spotting salinity during the growing season? Second, what is the effect of water infiltration
and drainage problems in heavy soils? Third question, why does the writer say that
water used for flushing should be of the highest quality? And also fill in the blanks, dash applications
should be carefully planned according to the crop conditions and growth stage. Fertilization should be based only on dash. So, please read the passage and try to solve
the exercises given below. Thank you very much and before winding up
let me tell you that, after the end of each module there will be assignments and you are
supposed to and you are expected to submit the assignments online. Thank you very much. Tags
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