Teotihuacan | Wikipedia audio article

Teotihuacan | Wikipedia audio article


Teotihuacan , (in Spanish: Teotihuacán) (Spanish
pronunciation: [teotiwa’kan] (listen), modern Nahuatl pronunciation ), is an ancient Mesoamerican
city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, which is located in the State of
Mexico 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of modern-day Mexico City. Teotihuacan is known
today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in
the pre-Columbian Americas. After the collapse of Teotihuacan, central
Mexico was dominated by the Toltecs of Tula until about 1150 CE.
At its zenith, perhaps in the first half of the first millennium CE, Teotihuacan was the
largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, with a population estimated at 125,000 or
more, making it at least the sixth largest city in the world during its epoch. The city
covered 8 square miles; 80 to 90 percent of the total population of the valley resided
in Teotihuacan. Apart from the pyramids, Teotihuacan is also anthropologically significant for
its complex, multi-family residential compounds, the Avenue of the Dead, and its vibrant murals
that have been well-preserved. Additionally, Teotihuacan exported fine obsidian tools that
are found throughout Mesoamerica. The city is thought to have been established around
100 BCE, with major monuments continuously under construction until about 250 CE. The
city may have lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th centuries CE, but its major
monuments were sacked and systematically burned around 550 CE.
Teotihuacan began as a religious center in the Mexican Highlands around the first century
CE. It became the largest and most populated center in the pre-Columbian Americas. Teotihuacan
was home to multi-floor apartment compounds built to accommodate the large population.
The term Teotihuacan (or Teotihuacano) is also used for the whole civilization and cultural
complex associated with the site. Although it is a subject of debate whether
Teotihuacan was the center of a state empire, its influence throughout Mesoamerica is well
documented; evidence of Teotihuacano presence can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz
and the Maya region. The later Aztecs saw these magnificent ruins and claimed a common
ancestry with the Teotihuacanos, modifying and adopting aspects of their culture. The
ethnicity of the inhabitants of Teotihuacan is the subject of debate. Possible candidates
are the Nahua, Otomi or Totonac ethnic groups. Scholars have suggested that Teotihuacan was
a multi-ethnic state. The city and the archaeological site are located
in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacán municipality in the State of México, approximately 40
kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Mexico City. The site covers a total surface area of 83
square kilometres (32 sq mi) and was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. It is
the most visited archaeological site in Mexico, receiving 4,185,017 visitors in 2017.==Name==
The name Teōtīhuacān was given by the Nahuatl-speaking Aztecs centuries after the fall of the city
around 550 CE. The term has been glossed as “birthplace of the gods”, or “place where
gods were born”, reflecting Nahua creation myths that were said to occur in Teotihuacan.
Nahuatl scholar Thelma D. Sullivan interprets the name as “place of those who have the road
of the gods.” This is because the Aztecs believed that the gods created the universe at that
site. The name is pronounced [te.oːtiːˈwakaːn] in Nahuatl, with the accent on the syllable
wa. By normal Nahuatl orthographic conventions, a written accent would not appear in that
position. Both this pronunciation and Spanish pronunciation: [te.otiwaˈkan] are used, and
both spellings appear in this article. The original name of the city is unknown,
but it appears in hieroglyphic texts from the Maya region as puh, or “Place of Reeds”.
This suggests that, in the Maya civilization of the Classic period, Teotihuacan was understood
as a Place of Reeds similar to other Postclassic Central Mexican settlements that took the
name of Tollan, such as Tula-Hidalgo and Cholula. This naming convention led to much confusion
in the early 20th century, as scholars debated whether Teotihuacan or Tula-Hidalgo was the
Tollan described by 16th-century chronicles. It now seems clear that Tollan may be understood
as a generic Nahua term applied to any large settlement. In the Mesoamerican concept of
urbanism, Tollan and other language equivalents serve as a metaphor, linking the bundles of
reeds and rushes that formed part of the lacustrine environment of the Valley of Mexico and the
large gathering of people in a city.==History=====
Origins and foundation===The early history of Teotihuacan is quite
mysterious and the origin of its founders is uncertain. Around 300 BCE, people of the
central and southeastern area of Mesoamerica began to gather into larger settlements. Teotihuacan
was the largest urban center of Mesoamerica before the Aztecs, almost 1000 years prior
to their epoch. The city was already in ruins by the time of the Aztecs. For many years,
archaeologists believed it was built by the Toltec. This belief was based on colonial
period texts, such as the Florentine Codex, which attributed the site to the Toltecs.
However, the Nahuatl word “Toltec” generally means “craftsman of the highest level” and
may not always refer to the Toltec civilization centered at Tula, Hidalgo. Since Toltec civilization
flourished centuries after Teotihuacan, the people could not have been the city’s founders.
In the Late Formative era, a number of urban centers arose in central Mexico. The most
prominent of these appears to have been Cuicuilco, on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco. Scholars
have speculated that the eruption of the Xitle volcano may have prompted a mass emigration
out of the central valley and into the Teotihuacan valley. These settlers may have founded or
accelerated the growth of Teotihuacan.Other scholars have put forth the Totonac people
as the founders of Teotihuacan. There is evidence that at least some of the people living in
Teotihuacan immigrated from those areas influenced by the Teotihuacano civilization, including
the Zapotec, Mixtec, and Maya peoples. The builders of Teotihuacan took advantage of
the geography in the Basin of Mexico. From the swampy ground, they constructed raised
beds, called chinampas, creating high agricultural productivity despite old methods of cultivation.
This allowed for the formation of channels, and subsequently canoe traffic, to transport
food from farms around the city. The earliest buildings at Teotihuacan date to about 200
BCE. The largest pyramid, the Pyramid of the Sun, was completed by 100 CE.===Year 378: “Conquest” of Tikal===
In January 378, while Spearthrower Owl supposedly ruled in Teotihuacan, the warlord Siyah K’ak’
“conquered” Tikal, removing and replacing the Maya king, with support from El Peru and
Naachtun, as recorded by Stela 31 at Tikal and other monuments in the Maya region.
In 378 a group of Teotihuacanos organized a coup d’etat in Tikal, Guatemala. This was
not the Teotihuacan state; it was a group of the Feathered-Serpent people, thrown out
from the city. The Feathered-Serpent Pyramid was burnt, all the sculptures were torn from
the temple, and another platform was built to efface the facade …===Year 426: “Conquest” of Copán and Quiriguá
===In 426, the Copán ruling dynasty was created
with K’inich Yax K’uk’ Mo’ as the first king. The Dynasty went on to have sixteen rulers.
Copán is located in modern-day Honduras, as described by Copán Altar Q(???). Soon
thereafter, Yax K’uk’ Mo’ installed Tok Casper as king of Quiriguá, about 50 km north of
Copán.===Zenith===
The city reached its peak in 450 CE, when it was the center of a powerful culture whose
influence extended through much of the Mesoamerican region. At its peak, the city covered over
30 km² (over ​11 1⁄2 square miles), and perhaps housed a population of 150,000 people,
with one estimate reaching as high as 250,000. Various districts in the city housed people
from across the Teotihuacano region of influence, which spread south as far as Guatemala. Notably
absent from the city are fortifications and military structures. The nature of political and cultural interactions
between Teotihuacan and the centers of the Maya region (as well as elsewhere in Mesoamerica)
has been a long-standing and significant area for debate. Substantial exchange and interaction
occurred over the centuries from the Terminal Preclassic to the Mid-Classic period. “Teotihuacan-inspired
ideologies” and motifs persisted at Maya centers into the Late Classic, long after Teotihuacan
itself had declined. However, scholars debate the extent and degree of Teotihuacano influence.
Some believe that it had direct and militaristic dominance; others that adoption of “foreign”
traits was part of a selective, conscious, and bi-directional cultural diffusion. New
discoveries have suggested that Teotihuacan was not much different in its interactions
with other centers from the later empires, such as the Toltec and Aztec. It is believed
that Teotihuacan had a major influence on the Preclassic and Classic Maya, most likely
by conquering several Maya centers and regions, including Tikal and the region of Peten, and
influencing Maya culture. Architectural styles prominent at Teotihuacan
are found widely dispersed at a number of distant Mesoamerican sites, which some researchers
have interpreted as evidence for Teotihuacan’s far-reaching interactions and political or
militaristic dominance. A style particularly associated with Teotihuacan is known as talud-tablero,
in which an inwards-sloping external side of a structure (talud) is surmounted by a
rectangular panel (tablero). Variants of the generic style are found in a number of Maya
region sites, including Tikal, Kaminaljuyu, Copan, Becan, and Oxkintok, and particularly
in the Petén Basin and the central Guatemalan highlands. The talud-tablero style pre-dates
its earliest appearance at Teotihuacan in the Early Classic period; it appears to have
originated in the Tlaxcala-Puebla region during the Preclassic. Analyses have traced the development
into local variants of the talud-tablero style at sites such as Tikal, where its use precedes
the 5th-century appearance of iconographic motifs shared with Teotihuacan. The talud-tablero
style disseminated through Mesoamerica generally from the end of the Preclassic period, and
not specifically, or solely, via Teotihuacano influence. It is unclear how or from where
the style spread into the Maya region. During the zenith main structures of the site, including
the pyramids, were painted in dark-red (maroon to Burgundy) colors (only small spots remain
now) and were a very impressionable view.The city was a center of industry, home to many
potters, jewelers, and craftsmen. Teotihuacan is known for producing a great number of obsidian
artifacts. No ancient Teotihuacano non-ideographic texts are known to exist (or known to have
existed). Inscriptions from Maya cities show that Teotihuacan nobility traveled to, and
perhaps conquered, local rulers as far away as Honduras. Maya inscriptions note an individual
nicknamed by scholars as “Spearthrower Owl”, apparently ruler of Teotihuacan, who reigned
for over 60 years and installed his relatives as rulers of Tikal and Uaxactun in Guatemala.Scholars
have based interpretations about the culture at Teotihuacan on archaeology, the murals
that adorn the site (and others, like the Wagner Murals, found in private collections),
and hieroglyphic inscriptions made by the Maya describing their encounters with Teotihuacano
conquerors. The creation of murals, perhaps tens of thousands of murals, reached its height
between 450 and 650. The artistry of the painters was unrivaled in Mesoamerica and has been
compared with that of painters in Renaissance Florence, Italy.===Collapse===Scholars had thought that invaders attacked
the city in the 7th or 8th century, sacking and burning it. More recent evidence, however,
seems to indicate that the burning was limited to the structures and dwellings associated
primarily with the ruling class. Some think this suggests that the burning was from an
internal uprising. They say the invasion theory is flawed, because early archaeological work
on the city was focused exclusively on the palaces and temples, places used by the upper
classes. Because all of these sites showed burning, archaeologists concluded that the
whole city was burned. Instead, it is now known that the destruction was centered on
major civic structures along the Avenue of the Dead. The sculptures inside palatial structures,
such as Xalla, were shattered. No traces of foreign invasion are visible at the site.Evidence
for population decline beginning around the 6th century lends some support to the internal
unrest hypothesis. The decline of Teotihuacan has been correlated to lengthy droughts related
to the climate changes of 535–536. This theory of ecological decline is supported
by archaeological remains that show a rise in the percentage of juvenile skeletons with
evidence of malnutrition during the 6th century, which is why there is different evidence that
helps indicate that famine is most likely one of the more possible reasons for the decline
of Teotihuacan. The majority of their food came from agriculture: They grew things such
as maize, beans, amaranth, green tomatoes (tomatillos?), and pumpkins, but their harvest
was not nearly sufficient to feed a population as big as it is believed have lived in Teotihuacan.
This finding does not conflict with either of the above theories, since both increased
warfare and internal unrest can also be effects of a general period of drought and famine.
Other nearby centers, such as Cholula, Xochicalco, and Cacaxtla, competed to fill the power void
left by Teotihuacan’s decline. They may have aligned themselves against Teotihuacan to
reduce its influence and power. The art and architecture at these sites emulate Teotihuacan
forms, but also demonstrate an eclectic mix of motifs and iconography from other parts
of Mesoamerica, particularly the Maya region.The sudden destruction of Teotihuacan was common
for Mesoamerican city-states of the Classic and Epi-Classic period. Many Maya states suffered
similar fates in the coming centuries, a series of events often referred to as the Classic
Maya collapse. Nearby, in the Morelos valley, Xochicalco was sacked and burned in 900 and
Tula met a similar fate around 1150.There is a theory that the collapse of Teotihuacan
was caused by its agriculture being devastated by the 535 CE eruption of the Ilopango volcano
in El Salvador.==Culture==Archaeological evidence suggests that Teotihuacan
was a multi-ethnic city, with distinct quarters occupied by Otomi, Zapotec, Mixtec, Maya,
and Nahua peoples. The Totonacs have always maintained that they were the ones who built
it. The Aztecs repeated that story, but it has not been corroborated by archaeological
findings.In 2001, Terrence Kaufman presented linguistic evidence suggesting that an important
ethnic group in Teotihuacan was of Totonacan or Mixe–Zoquean linguistic affiliation.
He uses this to explain general influences from Totonacan and Mixe–Zoquean languages
in many other Mesoamerican languages, whose people did not have any known history of contact
with either of the above-mentioned groups. Other scholars maintain that the largest population
group must have been of Otomi ethnicity, because the Otomi language is known to have been spoken
in the area around Teotihuacan both before and after the Classic period and not during
the middle period.===Religion===
In An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya, Miller
and Taube list eight deities: The Storm God
The Great Goddess The Feathered Serpent. An important deity
in Teotihuacan; most closely associated with the Feathered Serpent Pyramid (Temple of the
Feathered Serpent). The Old God
The War Serpent. Taube has differentiated two different serpent deities whose depictions
alternate on the Feathered Serpent Pyramid: the Feathered Serpent and what he calls the
“War Serpent”. Other researchers are more skeptical.
The Netted Jaguar The Pulque God
The Fat God. Known primarily from figurines and so assumed to be related to household
rituals.Esther Pasztory adds one more: The Flayed God. Known primarily from figurines
and so assumed to be related to household rituals.
The consensus among scholars is that the primary deity of Teotihuacan was the Great Goddess
of Teotihuacan. The dominant civic architecture is the pyramid. Politics were based on the
state religion; religious leaders were the political leaders. Religious leaders would
commission artists to create religious artworks for ceremonies and rituals.The artwork likely
commissioned would have been a mural or a censer depicting gods like the Great Goddess
of Teotihuacan or the Feathered Serpent. Censers would be lit during religious rituals to invoke
the gods including rituals with human sacrifice.Teotihuacanos practiced human sacrifice: human bodies and
animal sacrifices have been found during excavations of the pyramids at Teotihuacan. Scholars believe
that the people offered human sacrifices as part of a dedication when buildings were expanded
or constructed. The victims were probably enemy warriors captured in battle and brought
to the city for ritual sacrifice to ensure the city could prosper. Some men were decapitated,
some had their hearts removed, others were killed by being hit several times over the
head, and some were buried alive. Animals that were considered sacred and represented
mythical powers and military were also buried alive, imprisoned in cages: cougars, a wolf,
eagles, a falcon, an owl, and even venomous snakes.Numerous stone masks have been found
at Teotihuacan, and have been generally believed to have been used during a funerary context,
although some scholars call this into question, noting that masks “do not seem to have come
from burials”.===Population===
Teotihuacan was a mix of residential and work areas. Upper-class homes were usually compounds
that housed many such families, and one compound was found that was capable of housing between
sixty and eighty families. Such superior residences were typically made of plaster, each wall
in every section elaborately decorated with murals. These compounds or apartment complexes
were typically found within the city center. The vast lakes of the Basin of Mexico provided
the opportunity for people living around them to construct productive raised beds, or chinampas,
from swampy muck, construction that also produced channels between the beds.Different sections
of the city housed particular ethnic groups and immigrants. Typically, multiple languages
were spoken in these sections of the city.==Archaeological site==
Knowledge of the huge ruins of Teotihuacan was never completely lost. After the fall
of the city, various squatters lived on the site. During Aztec times, the city was a place
of pilgrimage and identified with the myth of Tollan, the place where the sun was created.
Today, Teotihuacan is one of the most noted archaeological attractions in Mexico.===Excavations and investigations===In the late 17th century Carlos de Sigüenza
y Góngora (1645–1700) made some excavations around the Pyramid of the Sun. Minor archaeological
excavations were conducted in the 19th century. In 1905 Mexican archaeologist and government
official, in the regime of Porfirio Díaz, Leopoldo Batres led a major project of excavation
and restoration. The Pyramid of the Sun was restored to celebrate the centennial of the
Mexican War of Independence in 1910. The site of Teotihuacan was the first to be expropriated
for the national patrimony under the Law of Monuments (1897), giving jurisdiction under
legislation for the Mexican state to take control. Some 250 plots were farmed on the
site. Peasants who had been farming portions were ordered to leave and the Mexican government
eventually paid some compensation to those individuals. A feeder train line was built
to the site in 1908, which allowed the efficient hauling of material from the excavations and
later to bring tourists to the site. In 1910, the International Congress of Americanists
met in Mexico, coinciding with the centennial celebrations, and the distinguished delegates,
such as its president Eduard Seler and vice president Franz Boas were taken to the newly
finished excavations.Further excavations at the Ciudadela were carried out in the 1920s,
supervised by Manuel Gamio. Other sections of the site were excavated in the 1940s and
1950s. The first site-wide project of restoration and excavation was carried out by INAH from
1960 to 1965, supervised by Jorge Acosta. This undertaking had the goals of clearing
the Avenue of the Dead, consolidating the structures facing it, and excavating the Palace
of Quetzalpapalotl. Sigvald Linné 1932 investigations, Statens
museer för världskultur During the installation of a “sound and light”
show in 1971, workers discovered the entrance to a tunnel and cave system underneath the
Pyramid of the Sun. Although scholars long thought this to be a natural cave, more recent
examinations have established the tunnel was entirely manmade. The interior of the Pyramid
of the Sun has never been fully excavated. In 1980-82, another major program of excavation
and restoration was carried out at the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent and the Avenue of
the Dead complex. Most recently, a series of excavations at the Pyramid of the Moon
have greatly expanded evidence of cultural practices.====Recent discoveries====
In late 2003 a tunnel beneath the Temple of the Feathered Serpent was accidentally discovered
by Sergio Gómez Chávez and Julie Gazzola, archaeologists of the National Institute of
Anthropology and History (INAH). After days of heavy rainstorm Gómez Chávez noticed
that a nearly three-foot-wide sinkhole occurred near the foot of the temple pyramid.First
trying to examine the hole with a flashlight from above Gómez could see only darkness,
so tied with a line of heavy rope around his waist he was lowered by several colleagues,
and descending into the murk he realized it was a perfectly cylindrical shaft. At the
bottom he came to rest in apparently ancient construction – a man-made tunnel, blocked
in both directions by immense stones. Gómez was aware that archaeologists had previously
discovered a narrow tunnel underneath the Pyramid of the Sun, and supposed he was now
observing a kind of similar mirror tunnel, leading to a subterranean chamber beneath
Temple of the Feathered Serpent. He decided initially to elaborate clear hypothesis and
to obtain approval. Meanwhile, he erected a tent over the sinkhole to preserve it from
the hundreds of thousands of tourists who visit Teotihuacán. Researchers reported that
the tunnel was believed to have been sealed in 200 CE.Preliminary planning of the exploration
and fundraising took more than six years.Before the start of excavations, beginning in the
early months of 2004, Dr. Victor Manuel Velasco Herrera, from UNAM Institute of Geophysics,
determined with the help of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and a team of some 20 archaeologists
and workers the approximate length of the tunnel and the presence of internal chambers.
They scanned the earth under the Ciudadela, returning every afternoon to upload the results
to Gómez’s computers. By 2005, the digital map was complete. The archaeologists explored
the tunnel with a remote-controlled robot called Tlaloc II-TC, equipped with an infrared
camera and a laser scanner that generates 3D visualization to perform three dimensional
register of the spaces beneath the temple. A small opening in the tunnel wall was made
and the scanner captured the first images, 37 meters into the passage.In 2009, the government
granted Gómez permission to dig. By the end of 2009 archaeologists of the INAH located
the entrance to the tunnel that leads to galleries under the pyramid, where rests of rulers of
the ancient city might have been deposited. In August 2010 Gómez Chávez, now director
of Tlalocan Project: Underground Road, announced that INAH’s investigation of the tunnel – closed
nearly 1,800 years ago by Teotihuacan dwellers – will proceed. The INAH team, consisted of
about 30 persons supported with national and international advisors at the highest scientific
levels, intended to enter the tunnel in September–October 2010. This excavation, the deepest made at
the Pre-Hispanic site, was part of the commemorations of the 100th anniversary of archaeological
excavations at Teotihuacan and its opening to the public.It was mentioned that the underground
passage runs under Feathered Serpent Temple, and the entrance is located a few meters away
from the temple at the expected place, deliberately sealed with large boulders nearly 2,000 years
ago. The hole that had appeared during the 2003 storms was not the actual entrance; a
vertical shaft of almost 5 meters by side is the access to the tunnel. At 14 meters
deep, the entrance leads to a nearly 100-meter long corridor that ends in a series of underground
galleries in the rock. After archaeologists broke ground at the entrance of the tunnel,
a staircase and ladders that would allow easy access to the subterranean site were installed.
Works advanced slowly and with painstaking care; excavating was done manually, with spades.
Nearly 1,000 tons of soil and debris were removed from the tunnel. There were large
spiral seashells, cat bones, pottery, fragments of human skin. The rich array of objects unearthed
included: wooden masks covered with inlaid rock jade and quartz, elaborate necklaces,
rings, greenstone crocodile teeth and human figurines, crystals shaped into eyes, beetle
wings arranged in a box, sculptures of jaguars, and hundreds of metallized spheres. The mysterious
globes lay in both the north and south chambers. Ranging from 40 to 130 millimetres, the balls
have a core of clay and are covered with a yellow jarosite formed by the oxidation of
pyrite. According to George Cowgill of Arizona State University, the spheres are a fascinating
find: “Pyrite was certainly used by the Teotihuacanos and other ancient Mesoamerican societies.
Originally, the spheres would have shown brilliantly. They are indeed unique, but I have no idea
what they mean.” All these artifacts were deposited deliberately and pointedly, as if
in offering to appease the gods.One of the most remarkable findings in the tunnel chambers
was a miniature mountainous landscape, 17 metres underground, with tiny pools of liquid
mercury representing lakes. The walls and ceiling of the tunnel were found to have been
carefully impregnated with mineral powder composed of magnetite, pyrite (fool’s gold),
and hematite to provide a glittering brightness to the complex, and to create the effect of
standing under the stars as a peculiar re-creation of the underworld. At the end of the passage,
Gómez Chávez’s team uncovered four greenstone statues, wearing garments and beads; their
open eyes would have shone with precious minerals. Two of the figurines were still in their original
positions, leaning back and appearing to contemplate up at the axis where the three planes of the
universe meet – likely the founding shamans of Teotihuacan, guiding pilgrims to the sanctuary,
and carrying bundles of sacred objects used to perform rituals, including pendants and
pyrite mirrors, which were perceived as portals to other realms.After each new segment was
cleared, the 3D scanner documented the progress. By 2015 nearly 75,000 fragments of artifacts
have been discovered, studied, cataloged, analyzed and, when possible, restored.The
significance of these new discoveries is publicly explored in a major exhibition at the De Young
Museum in San Francisco, which opened in late September 2017.As of January 23, 2018 the
name “Teotihuacan” has come under scrutiny by experts, who now feel that the site’s name
may have been changed by Spanish colonizers in the 16th century. Archaeologist Veronica
Ortega of the National Institute of Anthropology and History states that the city appears to
have actually been named “Teohuacan”, meaning “City of the Sun” rather than “City of the
Gods”, as the current name suggests.===Site layout===
The city’s broad central avenue, called “Avenue of the Dead” (a translation from its Nahuatl
name Miccoatli), is flanked by impressive ceremonial architecture, including the immense
Pyramid of the Sun (third largest in the World after the Great Pyramid of Cholula and the
Great Pyramid of Giza). Pyramid of the Moon and The Ciudadela with Temple of the Feathered
Serpent Quetzalcoatl are placed at the both ends of Avenue while Palace-museum Quetzalpapálot,
fourth basic structure of site, situated between two main pyramids. Along the Avenue are many
smaller talud-tablero platforms also. The Aztecs believed they were tombs, inspiring
the name of the avenue. Scholars have now established that these were ceremonial platforms
that were topped with temples. The Avenue of the dead is roughly forty meters
wide and four Kilometers long. Further down the Avenue of the Dead, after small river,
is the area known as the Citadel, containing the ruined Temple of the Feathered Serpent
Quetzalcoatl. This area was a large plaza surrounded by temples that formed the religious
and political center of the city. The name “Citadel” was given to it by the Spanish,
who believed it was a fort. Most of the common people lived in large apartment buildings
spread across the city. Many of the buildings contained workshops where artisans produced
pottery and other goods. The urban layout of Teotihuacan exhibits two
slightly different orientations, which resulted from astronomical criteria, rather than topographic.
The central part of the city, including the Avenue of the Dead, conforms to the orientation
of the Sun Pyramid, while the southern part reproduces the orientation of the Ciudadela.
The two constructions recorded sunrises and sunsets on particular dates, allowing the
use of an observational calendar. During the time of 100 A.D., “the sunrises on February
11 and October 29 and sunsets on April 30 and August 13. The interval from February
11 and October 29, as well as from August 13 to April 30, is exactly 260 days”. The
recorded dates are in multiples of 13 and 20 days, which align with the traditional
Mesoamerican calendar. Furthermore, the Sun Pyramid is aligned to Cerro Gordo to the north,
which means that it was purposefully built there to witness the sunrises on these specific
dates along the horizon of the hills. The artificial cave under the pyramid additionally
attests to the importance of this spot.The fact that both orientations belong to alignment
groups that are widespread in Mesoamerica can only be explained with the use of astronomical
references at the horizon. Teotihuacan belongs to the E-Group, meaning that the alignment
of their structures are in order to organize a calendar from the sunrises and sunsets of
solstices, proving that the placement of the structures did not rely heavily on topographic
criteria, but rather on astronomical alignments. An example of the rejection of the natural
lay of the land is the placement of the San Juan River, as its placement was modified
to bend around the structures as it goes through the centre of town eventually to return to
its natural course outside of Teotihuacan.Given that the E-Group were all in the same general
region of Mesoamerica, means their calendar was used for agricultural purposes. The E-Group’s
significance of the four main dates of their calendric year was for the purpose of agriculture.
These dates signified the cycle of maize farming: February was for preparations, May brought
rain which meant it was time to plant the maize, August was when the maize would begin
to grow, and November was the time to harvest. This 260-day calendar was made by the Aztecs
and was called the tonalpohualli.Pecked-cross circles throughout the city and in the surrounding
regions served as a way to design the urban grid, and as a way to read their 260-day calendar.
The urban grid had great significance to city planners when constructing Teotihuacan, as
the cross is pecked into the ground in the Pyramid of the Sun in specific places throughout
Teotihuacan in precise degrees and angles over three kilometres in distance. The layout
of these crosses suggest it was there to work as a grid to the layout of Teotihuacan because
they are laid out in a rectangular shape facing the Avenue of the Dead. These crosses point
to the direction of rising and setting sun during the solstices, showing another way
the seasons were observed. Some of the crosses marked the Tropic of Cancer, which also places
significance in the position of the sun. The direction of the axes of the crosses don’t
point to an astronomical North and South direction, but instead point to their own city’s North.
This was to ensure the people of Teotihuacan could see the skyline without any obstructions.
Numerology also has significance in the cross pecking because of the placement and amount
of the holes, which count to 260 days, which was the Aztec’s traditional calendar. Some
of the pecked-cross circles also resemble an ancient Aztec game called, patolli.These
pecked-cross circles can be found not just in Teotihuacan, but also throughout Mesoamerica.
The ones found all share certain similarities. These include, having the shape of two circles,
one being inside of the other. They are all found pecked on the ground or onto rocks.
They are all created with a small hammer-like device that produces cuplike markings that
are 1 centimetre in diameter and 2 centimetres apart. They all have axes that are in line
with the city structures of the region. Because they are aligned with the structures of the
cities, they also align with the position of significant astronomical bodies.The Ciudadela
was completed during the Miccaotli phase, and the Pyramid of the Sun underwent a complex
series of additions and renovations. The Great Compound was constructed across the Avenue
of the Dead, west of Ciudadela. This was probably the city’s marketplace. The existence of
a large market in an urban center of this size is strong evidence of state organization.
Teotihuacan was at that point simply too large and too complex to have been politically viable
as a chiefdom. The Ciudadela is a great enclosed compound
capable of holding 100,000 people. About 700,000 cubic meters (yards) of material was used
to construct its buildings. Its central feature is the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, which was flanked
by upper class apartments. The entire compound was designed to overwhelm visitors.==Threat from development==
The archaeological park of Teotihuacan is under threat from development pressures. In
2004, the governor of Mexico state, Arturo Montiel, gave permission for Wal-Mart to build
a large store in the third archaeological zone of the park. According to Sergio Gómez
Chávez, an archaeologist and researcher for Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology
and History (INAH) fragments of ancient pottery were found where trucks dumped the soil from
the site. More recently, Teotihuacan has become the
center of controversy over Resplandor Teotihuacano, a massive light and sound spectacular installed
to create a night time show for tourists. Critics explain that the large number of perforations
for the project have caused fractures in stones and irreversible damage, while the project
will have limited benefit.==Gallery====See also==
Asteroid 293477 Teotihuacan Cerro de la Estrella, a large Teotihuacano-styled
pyramid in what is now part of Mexico City List of archaeoastronomical sites by country
List of megalithic sites List of Mesoamerican pyramids
List of World Heritage Sites in Mexico Robert E. Lee Chadwick, an American anthropologist
and archeologist Spring equinox in Teotihuacán

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