Tamil Nadu | Wikipedia audio article


Tamil Nadu (Tamiḻ Nāḍu Tamil pronunciation:
[t̪amiɻ n̪aːᶑu] ( listen) “Tamil Country”, formerly Madras State) is one of the 29 states
of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras). Tamil
Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the
union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra
Pradesh. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the
Anaimalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf
of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. The
state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka.
Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest state
by population. It has high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2015. The economy of Tamil
Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹15.96 lakh crore (US$220 billion)
in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000 (US$2,300).
It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a “Multidimensional
Development Index” in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India. Its official
language is Tamil, which is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world.
The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites,
hill stations and eight World Heritage sites. The people of Tamil Nadu have continued to
develop their cultural heritage in terms of music, dance, literature, theatre, cuisine,
and other art forms.==History=====
Prehistory===Archaeological evidence points to this area
being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam,
archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone
tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere
around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi)
from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed
169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice
and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago. The ASI archaeologists have proposed
that the script used at that site is “very rudimentary” Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has
been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per
cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu,
and most of these are in the Tamil language. A new study of Indigenous Australian DNA suggests
there was some form of migration from India to Australia about 4,000 years ago.
Genetic evidence suggests that just over 4 millennia ago a group of Indian travellers
landed in Australia and stayed. The evidence emerged a few years ago after a group of Aboriginal
men’s Y chromosomes matched with Y chromosomes typically found in Indians. The study found
a pattern of SNPs that is found in genetics of Dravidian speakers from South India.===Indus valley script between 2000 and 1500
BCE===A Neolithic stone celt (a hand-held axe) with
the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu.
According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing
the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence
of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the “Neolithic people of the Tamil country
spoke a Harappan language”. The date of the celt was estimated at between
1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. .===Sangam period (300 BCE – 300 CE)===The early history of the people and rulers
of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature. Numismatic,
archaeological and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about six
centuries, from 300 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological
site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam
Era.===Bhakti Movement===The
Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards
through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region
with the Saiva Nayanars (4th–10th centuries) and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti
poetry and devotion. The Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti
tradition.===Medieval period (600–1300)===During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu
saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman
I. The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture
reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by
the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced
by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep
south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime
empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic
contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned
the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple
at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.
The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along
the south coast of India, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest
pearls in the known ancient world.====Chola Empire====During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty
was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola’s new capital
by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II. Aditya
I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating
the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman. Parantaka Chola II expanded the Chola empire into what
is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja
Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose to a notable power in south east Asia.
Now the Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal and Sri Lanka. At its peak, the empire spanned
almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India
and parts of Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola’s navy went even further, occupying coasts from Burma
(now ) to Vietnam, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya,
Philippines in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of Bengal,
and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
The Cholas were prolific temple builders right from the times of the first medieval king
Vijayalaya Chola. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. His
son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. The Cholas
went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures
in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging
their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. The celebrated Nataraja temple at
Chidambaram and the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam held special significance for
the Cholas which have been mentioned in their inscriptions as their tutelary deities. Rajaraja
Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola built temples such as the Brihadeshvara Temple of Thanjavur
and Brihadeshvara Temple of Gangaikonda Cholapuram, the Airavatesvara Temple of Darasuram and
the Sarabeswara (Shiva) Temple, also called the Kampahareswarar Temple at Thirubhuvanam,
the last two temples being located near Kumbakonam. The first three of the above four temples
are titled Great Living Chola Temples among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.===Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1336–1646)
===The Muslim invasions of southern India triggered
the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire with Vijayanagara in modern Karnataka
as its capital. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370
and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by
a confederacy of Deccan sultanates. Subsequently, as the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline
after the mid-16th century, many local rulers, called Nayaks, succeeded in gaining the trappings
of independence. This eventually resulted in the further weakening of the empire; many
Nayaks declared themselves independent, among whom the Nayaks of Madurai and Tanjore were
the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the
Vijayanagara kingdom. The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent
of Nayaks in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu
such as the Meenakshi Temple.===Power struggles of the 18th century (1688–1802)
===By the early 18th century, the political scene
in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers
aspiring to be independent. The fall of the Vijayanagara empire and the Chandragiri Nayakas
gave the sultanate of Golconda a chance to expand into the Tamil heartland. When the
sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day
Tamil Nadu was administrated by the nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat in Arcot
from 1715 onward. Meanwhile, to the south, the fall of the Thanjavur Nayaks led to a
short-lived Thanjavur Maratha kingdom. The fall of the Madurai Nayaks brought up many
small Nayakars of southern Tamil Nadu, who ruled small parcels of land called palayams.
The chieftains of these Palayams were known as Palaiyakkarar (or ‘polygar’ as called by
British) and were ruling under the nawabs of the Carnatic. Europeans started to establish trade centres
during the 17th century in the eastern coastal regions. Around 1609, the Dutch established
a settlement in Pulicat, while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also
known as Tranquebar. In 1639, the British, under the East India Company, established
a settlement further south of Pulicat, in present-day Chennai. British constructed Fort
St. George and established a trading post at Madras. The office of mayoralty of Chennai
was established in 1688. The French established trading posts at Pondichéry by 1693. The
British and French were competing to expand the trade in the northern parts of Tamil Nadu
which also witnessed many battles like Battle of Wandiwash as part of the Seven Years’ War.
British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. Nawabs of the Carnatic bestowed
tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company for defeating the Kingdom of
Mysore. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company
which firmly established the British in the northern parts. In 1762, a tripartite treaty
was signed between Thanjavur Maratha, Carnatic and the British by which Thanjavur became
a vassal of the Nawab of the Carnatic which eventually ceded to British. In the south, Nawabs granted taxation rights
to the British which led to conflicts between British and the Palaiyakkarar, which resulted
in series of wars called Polygar war to establish independent states by the aspiring Palaiyakkarar.
Puli Thevar was one of the earliest opponents of the British rule in South India. Thevar’s
prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who later rebelled against
the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Rani Velu Nachiyar, was the first woman freedom
fighter of India and Queen of Sivagangai. She was drawn to war after her husband Muthu
Vaduganatha Thevar (1750–1772), King of Sivaganga was murdered at Kalayar Kovil temple
by British. Before her death, Queen Velu Nachi granted powers to the Maruthu brothers to
rule Sivaganga. Kattabomman (1760–1799), Palaiyakkara chief of Panchalakurichi who
fought the British in the First Polygar War. He was captured by the British at the end
of the war and hanged near Kayattar in 1799. Veeran Sundaralingam (1700–1800) was the
General of Kattabomman Nayakan’s palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British
ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman
Palace. Oomaithurai, younger brother of Kattabomman, took asylum under the Maruthu brothers, Periya
Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu and raised an army. They formed a coalition with Dheeran Chinnamalai
and Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja which fought the British in Second Polygar Wars. Dheeran
Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and feudatory of Tipu Sultan who
fought the British in the Second Polygar War. After winning the Polygar wars in 1801, the
East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency.===British rule (1801–1947)===At the beginning of the 19th century, the
British firmly established governance over entirety of Tamil Nadu. The Vellore mutiny
on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against
the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.
The revolt, which took place in Vellore, was brief, lasting one full day, but brutal as
mutineers broke into the Vellore fort and killed or wounded 200 British troops, before
they were subdued by reinforcements from nearby Arcot. The British crown took over the control
governance from the Company and the remainder of the 19th century did not witness any native
resistance until the beginning of 20th century Indian Independence movements. During the
administration of Governor George Harris(1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and
increase representation of Indians in the administration. Legislative powers given to
the Governor’s council under the Indian Councils Act 1861 and 1909 Minto-Morley Reforms eventually
led to the establishment of the Madras Legislative Council. Failure of the summer monsoons and
administrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari system resulted in two severe famines in the
Madras Presidency, the Great Famine of 1876–78 and the Indian famine of 1896–97. The famine
led to migration of people as bonded labours for British to various countries which eventually
formed the present Tamil diaspora.===India (1947–present)===
When India became independent in 1947, Madras presidency became Madras state, comprising
present-day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Odisha, South Canara
district Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic
lines. In 1969, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning “Tamil country”.==Geography==Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2 (50,216
sq mi), and is the eleventh largest state in India. The bordering states are Kerala
to the west, Karnataka to the north west and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is
the Bay of Bengal and the state encircles the union territory of Puducherry. The southernmost
tip of the Indian Peninsula is Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian
Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean. The western, southern and the north western
parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats meet at
the Nilgiri hills. The Western Ghats traverse the entire western border with Kerala, effectively
blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the south west monsoon from entering the state.
The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills
and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall
than the other regions. Tamil Nadu has the country’s third longest
coastline at about 906.9 km (563.5 mi). Tamil Nadu’s coastline bore the brunt of the 2004
Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil
Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border
areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards
(BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced
seismic activity in the M5.0 range.===Climate===
Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when
the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The
state has two distinct periods of rainfall: south west monsoon from June to September,
with strong southwest winds; North east monsoon from October to December,
with dominant north east winds;The annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2
in) of which 48 per cent is through the north east monsoon, and 32 per cent through the
south west monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water
resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought. Tamil Nadu
is divided into seven agro-climatic zones: north east, north west, west, southern, high
rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Kaveri Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone).==Flora and fauna==There are about 2000 species of wildlife that
are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including
elephants, tigers, leopards, wild dogs, sloth bears, gaurs, lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri
langurs, Nilgiri tahrs, grizzled giant squirrels and sambar deer, resident and migratory birds
such as cormorants, darters, herons, egrets, open-billed storks, spoonbills and white ibises,
little grebes, Indian moorhen, black-winged stilts, a few migratory ducks and occasionally
grey pelicans, marine species such as the dugongs, turtles, dolphins, Balanoglossus
and a wide variety of fish and insects. Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672
species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting
for 1/3 of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of medicinal plants,
533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species.
The Gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has four indigenous
species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes
1022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen,
fungi, algae and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.
Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona,
clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel,
grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. Rare and unique plant
life includes Combretum ovalifolium, ebony (Diospyros nilagrica), Habenaria rariflora
(orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and royal fern.==National and state parks==Tamil Nadu has a wide range of Biomes extending
east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through
the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical
dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, Seagrasses
and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal. The state has a range of flora and fauna with
many species and habitats. To protect this diversity of wildlife there are Protected
areas of Tamil Nadu as well as biospheres which protect larger areas of natural habitat
often include one or more National Parks. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve established
in 1986 is a marine ecosystem with seaweed seagrassrass communities, coral reefs, salt
marshes and mangrove forests. The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats
and Nilgiri Hills comprises part of adjoining states of Kerala and Karnataka. The Agasthyamala
Biosphere Reserve is in the south west of the state bordering Kerala in the Western
Ghats. Tamil Nadu is home to five declared National parks located in Anamalai, Mudumalai,
Mukurithi, Gulf of Mannar, Guindy located in the centre of Chennai city and Vandalur
located in South Chennai. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Mukurthi National Park and Kalakkad
Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the tiger reserves in the state.==Governance and administration==The Governor is the constitutional head of
the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the
council of ministers. The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary.
The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Banwarilal Purohit (governor),
Edappadi K. Palaniswami and Vijaya Kamlesh Tahilramani respectively. Administratively
the state is divided into 32 districts. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital.
It is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major Metropolitan
cities of India. The state comprises 39 Lok Sabha constituencies and 234 Legislative Assembly
constituencies.Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced
with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the government
is five years. The present government is headed by Edappadi K. Palaniswami, after the demise
of former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, J. Jayalalithaa of the All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam. The Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is housed at the Fort St. George
in Chennai. The state had come under the President’s rule on four occasions – first from 1976
to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.
Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. A large
part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices
of the state government like Urban Local Bodies – all the corporations and municipal office
activities – revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised.
Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully.
The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police
force in India (as of 2015, total police force of TN is 1,11,448) and has the highest proportion
of women police personnel in the country (total women police personnel of TN is 13,842 which
is about 12.42%) to specifically handled violence against women in Tamil Nadu. In 2003, the
state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average
of 1:717.==Administrative subdivisions==Tamil Nadu is subdivided into 32 districts,
which are listed below. A district is administered by a District Collector who is mostly an Indian
Administrative Service (IAS) member, appointed by State Government. Districts are further
divided into 226 Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks. A District
has also one or more Revenue Divisions (in total 76) constituted by many Revenue Blocks.
16,564 Revenue villages (Village Panchayat) are the primary grassroots level administrative
units which in turn might include many villages and administered by a Village Administrative
Officer (VAO), many of which form a Revenue Block. Cities and towns are administered by
Municipal corporations and Municipalities respectively. The urban bodies include 12
city corporations, 125 municipalities and 529 town panchayats. The rural bodies include
31 district panchayats, 385 panchayat unions and 12,524 village panchayats.==Politics=====
Pre-Independence===Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was
under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency. The main party in Tamil
Nadu at that time was the Indian National Congress (INC). Regional parties have dominated
state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare
Association, a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party
was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by its opponents. Later, South Indian
Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice
Party in elections was the non-participation of the INC, demanding complete independence
of India. The Justice Party which was under E.V.Ramaswamy
was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam in 1944. It was a non-political party which demanded the
establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences
between its two leaders EVR and C.N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party
to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956.===Post-Independence=====
Demographics==Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state
in India. 48.4 per cent of the state’s population live in urban areas, the second highest percentage
among large states in India. The state has registered the lowest fertility rate in India
in year 2005–06 with 1.7 children born for each woman, lower than required for population
sustainability.At the 2011 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,147,030. The sex
ratio of the state is 995 with 36,137,975 males and 36,009,055 females. There are a
total of 23,166,721 households. The total children under the age of 6 is 7,423,832.
A total of 14,438,445 people constituting 20.01 per cent of the total population belonged
to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 794,697 people constituting 1.10 per cent of the population
belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST).The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy
rate 80.33 per cent. There are a total of 27,878,282 workers, comprising 4,738,819 cultivators,
6,062,786 agricultural labourers, 1,261,059 in house hold industries, 11,695,119 other
workers, 4,120,499 marginal workers, 377,220 marginal cultivators, 2,574,844 marginal agricultural
labourers, 238,702 marginal workers in household industries and 929,733 other marginal workers.
List of most populous towns in Tamil Nadu Among the cities in 2011, the state capital,
Chennai, was the most populous city in the state, followed by Coimbatore, Madurai, Trichy
and Salem respectively. India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while
the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in
the country. The life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it
is 67.6 years. However, it has a high level of poverty especially in the rural areas.
In 2004–2005, the poverty line was set at ₹ 351.86/month for rural areas and ₹ 547.42/month
for urban areas. Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7 per cent in 1983 to 21.1 per cent
in 2001 For the period 2004–2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5
per cent compared with the national figure of 27.5 per cent. The World Bank is currently
assisting the state in reducing poverty, High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools
continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. Other problems include
class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP – Consumption
for the period 2004–2005, percentage of the state’s population Below Poverty Line
was 27.5 per cent. The Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative ranks Tamil Nadu to
have a Multidimensional Poverty Index of 0.141, which is in the level of Ghana among the developing
countries. Corruption is a major problem in the state with Transparency International
ranking it the second most corrupt among the states of India.==Religion==As per the religious census of 2011, Tamil
Nadu had 87.6% Hindus, 6.1% Christians, 5.9% Muslims, 0.1% Jains and 0.3% following other
religions or no religion.==Language==Tamil (தமிழ்) is the sole official
language of Tamil Nadu, while English is declared an additional official
language for communication purposes. When India adopted national standards, Tamil was
the first language to be recognised as a classical language of India. As of 2001 census, Tamil
is spoken as the first language by 89.41 percent of the state’s population followed by Telugu
(5.65%), Kannada (1.67%), Urdu (1.51%) and Malayalam (0.89%). Other Languages spoken
are Hindi, Gujarati, Marathi, Bengali etc which are mostly spoken by migrant people.==Education==
Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably
well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 2001–2011. A survey conducted by
the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100 per
cent Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education. One of the basic
limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers
in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant. The analysis of primary school
education in the state by Pratham shows a low drop-off rate but poor quality of state
education compared to other states. Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering
colleges 449 Polytechnic Colleges and 566 arts and science colleges, 34335 elementary
schools, 5167 high schools, 5054 higher secondary schools and 5000 hospitals. Some of the notable
educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras,
College of Engineering, Guindy, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, St. Joseph’s
Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Indian Maritime University, National Institute of
Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Madras Medical College,
Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Loyola College, Chennai, Ethiraj College for Women, Stella
Maris College, Chennai, Anna University, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Bharathiar
University, Coimbatore and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Sri Ramachandra Medical
College and Research Institute. Tamil Nadu now has 69 per cent reservation
in educational institutions for socially backward section of the society, the highest among
all Indian states. The Midday Meal Scheme programme in Tamil Nadu was first initiated
by Kamaraj, then it was expanded by M G Ramachandran in 1983.==Culture==Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable
culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance
which continue to flourish today. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient
Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam. Unique cultural features like
Bharatanatyam (dance), Tanjore painting, and Tamil architecture were developed and continue
to be practised in Tamil Nadu.===Literature===
Tamil written literature has existed for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature,
Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It is the oldest Indian literature
amongst all others. The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones
date from around the 3rd century BC.Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with
prose not becoming more common until later periods. The Sangam literature collection
contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous. Sangam
literature is primarily secular, dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context. The
Sangam literature also deals with human relationship and emotions. The available literature from
this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based
roughly on chronology. The categories are: Pathinenmaelkanakku (The Major Eighteen Anthology
Series) comprising Eṭṭuttokai (The Eight Anthologies) and the Pattupattu (Ten Idylls)
and Pathinenkilkanakku (The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series).
Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil,
the Tolkāppiyam. Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 1000 B.C grammar Naṉṉūl
which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications.
Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, sol, poruḷ, yāppu,
aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry. Notable example of Tamil poetry
include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar before 2000 years.
In 1578, the Portuguese published a Tamil book in old Tamil script named ‘Thambiraan
Vanakkam’, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published. Tamil
Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, is the first among the dictionaries published
in any Indian language. During the Indian freedom struggle, many Tamil poets and writers
sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common
man, notably Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasan.===Festivals and traditions===Pongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal
(festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one
of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu. The Tamil language saying Thai
Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum – literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way
for new opportunities – is often quoted with reference to this festival. The first
day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials
by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second
day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month
Thai (14 January or 15 January in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is
meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands.Jallikattu,
a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. Alanganallur is famous for its
Jallikattu contest usually held on 3rd day of Pongal. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal
– the word “kaanum”, means ‘to view’ in Tamil. In 2011 the Madras High Court Bench
ordered the cockfight at Santhapadi and Modakoor Melbegam villages permitted during the Pongal
festival while disposing of a petition filed attempting to ban the cockfight.
The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chittirai and the first day of this month in mid-April
is celebrated as Tamil New Year. The Thiruvalluvar calendar is 31 years ahead of the Gregorian
calendar, i.e. Gregorian 2000 is Thiruvalluvar 2031. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th
day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river
Kaveri. Apart from the major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the
inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from
place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman, the mother
goddess of rain. Other major Hindu festivals including Deepavali (Death of Narakasura),
Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are
also celebrated. Eid ul-Fitr, Bakrid, Milad un Nabi, Muharram are celebrated by Muslims
whereas Christmas, Good Friday, Easter are celebrated by Christians in the state. Mahamagam
a bathing festival at Kumbakonam in Tamil Nadu is celebrated once in 12 years. People
from all the corners of the country come to Kumbakonam for the festival. This festival
is also called as Kumbamela of South.===Music===In terms of modern cine-music, Ilaiyaraaja
was a prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s.
His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader western musical sensibilities
to the south Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar
Winner A.R. Rahman who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi films, English and
Chinese films. He was once referred to by Time magazine as “The Mozart of Madras”.===Film industry===Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film
industry nicknamed as “Kollywood”, which released the most number of films in India in 2013.
The term Kollywood is a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Tamil cinema is one of the
largest industries of film production in India. In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated
by the government. Single screen theatres may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theaters
with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket. The first silent
film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916. The first talkie was a multi-lingual
film, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India’s first
talking picture Alam Ara. Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India
in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of “Tent Cinema” in which a tent was erected on a stretch
of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was
established in Madras, called “Edison’s Grand Cinemamegaphone”. This was due to the fact
that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.===Television industry===
There are more than 30 television channels of various genre in Tamil. DD Podhigai, Doordarshan’s
Tamil language regional channel was launched on 14 April 1993. The first private Tamil
channel, Sun TV was founded in 1993 by Kalanidhi Maran. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry
is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people
with political links. The government of Tamil Nadu distributed free televisions to families
in 2006 at an estimated cost ₹3.6 billion (US$50 million) of which has led to high penetration
of TV services. Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government
run operator Arasu Cable. From the early 2010s, Direct to Home has become increasingly popular
replacing cable television services. Tamil television serials form a major prime time
source of entertainment and are directed usually by one director unlike American television
series, where often several directors and writers work together.===Cuisine===Items that are native to Tamil Nadu are Idli,
Dosa, Sambhar, Variety of Chutney, Idiyappam, Vadai Santhakai/Sandhavai, Athirasam, Chakkarai
Pongal and Kuli Paniyaram. Salem is renowned for its unique mangoes, Madurai is the place
of origin of milk dessert Jigarthanda while Palani is known for its Panchamirtham. Coffee
and tea are the staple drinks.==Economy==For the year 2014–15 Tamil Nadu’s GSDP was
₹9.767 trillion (US$140 billion), and growth was 14.86. It ranks third in foreign direct
investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991–2002) of ₹ 225.826 billion ($5,000 million), next
only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country.
The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹ 72,993 ranking third among states
with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.
According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per
cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per
cent of India’s total population. Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic
activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent.
Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed
by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per
cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed
plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government
the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base year 2004–2005) for the year
2011–2012 is ₹4.281 trillion (US$60 billion), an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous
year. The per capita income at current price is ₹ 72,993.
Tamil Nadu has six Nationalised Home Banks which originated in this state; Two government-sector
banks Indian Bank and Indian Overseas Bank in Chennai, and Four private-sector banks
City Union Bank in Kumbakonam, Karur Vysya Bank, Lakshmi Vilas Bank in Karur, and Tamilnad
Mercantile Bank Limited in Tuticorin.===Agriculture===
Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural
products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India’s fifth biggest producer of rice. The
total cultivated area in the State was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. The Cauvery
delta region is known as the Rice Bowl of Tamil Nadu. In terms of production, Tamil
Nadu accounts for 10 per cent in fruits and 6 per cent in vegetables, in India. Annual
food grains production in the year 2007–08 was 10035,000 mt. The state is the largest producer of bananas,
turmeric, flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of mango, natural rubber, coconut,
groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota, Tea and Sugarcane. Tamil Nadu’s
sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India. The state has 17,000 hectares of
land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India. Dr M.S. Swaminathan, known as the “father
of the Indian Green Revolution” was from Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with
its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes
to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension
agencies. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry
and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all
the states and accounted for 17.7 per cent of the total poultry population in India.
In 2003–2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 3783.6 million of eggs, which was the second highest
in India representing 9.37 per cent of the total egg production in the country. With
the second longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54 per cent of the total
value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006. Namakkal is also one of
the major centres of egg production in India. Coimbatore is one of the major centres for
poultry production.===Textiles and leather===Tamil Nadu is one of the leading States in
the textile sector and it houses the country’s largest spinning industry accounting for almost
80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. When it comes to yarn production,
the State contributes 40 per cent of the total production in the country. There are 2,614
Hand Processing Units (25 per cent of total units in the country) and 985 Power Processing
Units (40 per cent of total units in the country) in Tamil Nadu. According to official data,
the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital
in all the industries. Coimbatore is often referred to as the “Manchester of South India”
due to its cotton production and textile industries. Tirupur is the country’s largest exporter
of knitwear. for its cotton production. The region around Coimbatore, Tirupur, Palladam,
Karur and Erode is referred to as the “Textile Valley of India” with the export from the
Tirupur ₹ 50,000 million ($1,000 million) and Karur generates around ₹ 35,500 million
($750 million) a year in foreign exchange. Rajapalayam, Gobichettipalayam, Pollachi,
Udumalpet, Theni and Vedasandur are known for its cotton spinning mills. Gobichettipalayam
is a prominent producer of white silk with the country’s first automated silk reeling
unit present here. Kanchipuram and Arani are world-famous for their pure silk sarees and
hand loom silk weaving industries. Aruppukottai, Salem, and Sathyamangalam are also famous
for art-silk sarees. Rajapalayam, Srivilliputhur, Sankarankovil, Andipatti, Tiruchengodu, Paramakudi,
Kurinjipadi, Chennimalai, Komarapalayam are major handloom centres. Rajapalayam, Srivilliputhur,
Sankarankovil, Negamam, Cinnalapatti, Woraiyur, Pochampalli are famous for its soft cotton
saree weaving. Madurai is known for its Chungidi cotton sarees and Bhavani for its cotton carpets.===Automobiles===
Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing
cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories,
tyres and heavy vehicles. Chennai is known as the Detroit of India. Major global automobile
companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi
Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland,
Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors,
DaimlerChrysler AG Company also invested (₹) 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil
Nadu.===Heavy industries and engineering===
Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Over 11% of the S&P CNX 500
conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu. Many heavy engineering and manufacturing
companies are located in and around the suburbs of Chennai. Bharat Heavy Electricals, one
of India’s largest electrical equipment manufacturing companies, has manufacturing plants at Tiruchirapalli
and Ranipet. India’s leading steel producer, the state-owned Steel Authority of India has
a steel plant in Salem. Sterlite Industries has a copper smelter at Tuticorin and an aluminium
plant in Mettur. The Chennai Petroleum Corporation is a state-owned oil and gas corporation headquartered
in Chennai, and owns refineries at Manali and Panangudi. The state government owns the
Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers, in Karur. Jointly with the Tata Group, the state owns
the world’s sixth largest manufacturer of watches, under the brand name of Titan, at
Hosur. A number of large cement manufacturers, including the Chettinad Group, Ramco Cements,
Tancem, the Dalmia Group, UltraTech Cements and ACC are present across the state.
Coimbatore is also referred to as “the Pump City” as it supplies two-thirds of India’s
requirements of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of wet grinders
and auto components and the term “Coimbatore Wet Grinder” has been given a Geographical
indication.===Electronics and software===
Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies
like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer, Lenovo,
Dell, Sanmina-SCI, Texas Instruments having chosen Chennai as their south Asian manufacturing
hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.Tamil Nadu
is the second largest software exporter by value in India. Software exports from Tamil
Nadu grew from ₹ 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003–04 to ₹ 207 billion {$5 billion}
by 2006–07 according to NASSCOM and to ₹ 366 billion in 2008–09 which shows 29 per cent
growth in software exports according to STPI. Major national and global IT Companies such
as Syntel, Infosys, Wipro, HCL, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon, Hewlett-Packard, Bosch,
Amazon.com, eBay, PayPal, IBM, Accenture, Ramco Systems, DXC Technology, Cognizant Technology
solutions, Tech Mahindra, Polaris, Aricent, MphasiS, Mindtree, Hexaware Technologies and
many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. The top engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu have
been a major recruiting hub for the IT firms. According to estimates, about 50 per cent
of the HR required for the IT and ITES industry was being sourced from the State. Coimbatore
is the second largest software producer in the state, next to Chennai.==Infrastructure=====Transport=======Road====Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that
connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing
links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29
national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km (3,110.67 mi).
The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project, that connects Indian
metropolises like (New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata). The state has a total
road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained
by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India
road network. The major road junctions are Chennai, Vellore, Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore,
Salem, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri, Dindigul and Kanniyakumari. Road transport
is provided by state owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport
Corporation. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The
State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013,
11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries,
according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil
Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having
reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained
awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881
in 2012 and 867 in 2013.====Rail====
Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered
at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India’s southern peninsula,
covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and
a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with
Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. Chennai Central is gateway for train towards north whereas
Chennai Egmore serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length
of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects
the state with most major cities in India. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is one of the
UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting Ooty on the hills and Mettupalayam in the foot
hills which is in turn connected to Coimbatore city. The centenary old Pamban Bridge over
sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is
one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge
section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean.
Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro
with phase1 operational since July 2015 . Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the
state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil,
Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. Chennai Central, Madurai Junction, Katpadi Junction, Chennai
Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade
level. Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai,
Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at Erode is a huge
composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery,
and metro rail also running between Alandur and koyambedu station.====Airports====Tamil Nadu has four international airports
namely Chennai International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International
Airport and Madurai International Airport. Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic
airports. Chennai International Airport is a major international airport and aviation
hub in South Asia. Besides civilian airports, the state has four air bases of the Indian
Air Force namely Thanjavur AFS, Tambram AFS, Coimbatore AFS and two naval air stations
INS Rajali and INS Parundu of Indian Navy.====Seaport====
Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well
as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam. Chennai Port is an artificial
harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country
for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu.
The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.===Energy===Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed
power generation capacity in the country. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore
Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur
Dam, hundreds of windmills and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil
Nadu’s electricity. Tamil Nadu generates a significant proportion of its power needs
from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 7154 MW, accounting for 38
per cent of total installed wind power in India . It is presently adding the Koodankulam
Nuclear Power Plant to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic
power plant in the country with 2000MW installed capacity. The total installed capacity of
electricity in the State by January 2014 was 20,716 MW. Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide
in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34 per
cent. From a power surplus state in 2005–06, Tamil Nadu has become a state facing severe
power shortage over the recent years due to lack of new power generation projects and
delay in the commercial power generation at Kudankulam Atomic Power Project. The Tuticorin
Thermal Power Station has five 210 megawatt generators. The first generator was commissioned
in July 1979. The thermal power plants under construction include the coal-based 1000 MW
NLC TNEB Power Plant. From the current 17MW installed Solar power, Tamil Nadu government’s
new policy aims to increase the installed capacity to 3000MW by 2016.==Sports==Kabbadi, is recognised as the state game in
Tamil Nadu. The traditional sport of Tamil Nadu include Silambam, a Tamil martial arts
played with a long bamboo staff, Cockfight, Jallikattu, a bull taming sport famous on
festival occasions, ox-wagon racing known as Rekkala, Kite flying also known as Pattam
viduthal, Goli, the game with marbles, Aadu Puli, the “goat and tiger” game and Kabaddi
also known as Sadugudu. Most of these traditional sports are associated with festivals of land
like Thai Pongal and mostly played in rural areas. In urban areas of Tamil Nadu, modern
sports like bat and ball games are played. S. Ilavazhagi carrom world champion from 2002–2016 The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is
an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket
Association. Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan, Krishnamachari Srikkanth, Laxman Sivaramakrishnan,
Sadagoppan Ramesh, Laxmipathy Balaji, Murali Vijay, Ravichandran Ashwin and Dinesh Karthik
are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a popular
fast bowling academy for pace bowlers all over the world. Cricket contests between local
clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. Chennai Super Kings represent the
city of Chennai in the Indian Premier League, a popular Twenty20 league. The Super Kings
are the most successful team in the league with three IPL titles at par with Mumbai Indians
and two CLT20 titles. Tennis is also a popular sport in Tamil Nadu
with notable international players including Ramesh Krishnan, Ramanathan Krishnan, Vijay
Amritraj and Mahesh Bhupathi. Nirupama Vaidyanathan, the first Indian women to play in a grandslam
tournament also hails from the state. The ATP Chennai Open tournament is held in Chennai
every January. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) owns Nungambakkam tennis
stadium which hosts Chennai Open and Davis Cup play-off tournaments.
The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of Hockey in the state. Vasudevan Baskaran
was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The
Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded
by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its infrastructure.Tamil
Nadu also has Golf ground in Coimbatore, The Coimbatore Golf Club is an 18-hole golf course
located in a place called Chettipalayam in Coimbatore, located within the city limits
in the state of Tamil Nadu in India. The Club is also a popular venue for major Golf Tournaments
held in India. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil
Nadu (SDAT), a government body, is vested with the responsibility of developing sports
and related infrastructure in the state. The SDAT owns and operates world class stadiums
and organises sporting events. It also accommodates sporting events, both at domestic and international
level, organised by other sports associations at its venues. The YMCA College of Physical
Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical
education in Asia. The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a multi-purpose stadium hosting
football and track & field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation
of India are headquartered in Chennai. Chennai hosted India’s first ever International Beach
Volleyball Championship in 2008. The SDAT – TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai is one
of the very few academies in south Asia hosting international squash events.Jawaharlal Nehru
Stadium in Coimbatore, it is a football stadium and also a multi-purpose stadium in Coimbatore
constructed in 1971.==Tourism==The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the
largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted
by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking.
According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4.68 million foreign (20.1% share of the country)
and 333.5 million domestic tourists (23.3% share of the country) visited the state in
2015 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists. The state
boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built in Dravidian architecture. The Brihadishwara
Temple in Thanjavur, Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple in Darasuram
built by the Cholas and the Shore Temple along with the collection of other monuments in
Mahabalipuram (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Erwadi in Ramanathapuram district is one of the major Islamic tourist attraction site.==See also====
Notes====
References====
External links==GovernmentThe Official Site of the Government
of Tamil Nadu Official Tourism Site of Tamil Nadu, IndiaGeneral
informationTamil Nadu Encyclopædia Britannica entry
Tamil Nadu at Curlie Geographic data related to Tamil Nadu at OpenStreetMap

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