Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays

Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays


Due to the crazy technological challenges that had to be overcome in order to detect gravitational waves, some people were skeptical that scientists had actually done it, that they’d actually seen gravitational waves from black holes – after all, there was no corroboration. But, after the discovery that’s being announced today, there can be no more doubt, because scientists have detected the merging of two neutron stars a hundred and thirty million light years away. This is the first ever detection of gravitational waves from in-spiraling neutron stars, and what’s really exciting about this detection is that the same event has been observed with telescopes in all areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. It all began on August 17th at 8:41 a.m. Eastern Time when LIGO interferometers identified a clear gravitational wave signal that lasted about a hundred seconds, which is way longer than any previous detection, and it’s consistent with theoretical predictions for the signal from two merging neutron stars. [“hear” the sound of two stars colliding ♪] Around 1.7seconds later NASA’s Fermi gamma-ray telescope identified a burst of gamma rays. For decades gamma-ray bursts have been thought to come from neutron star mergers, but the evidence has been lacking to know for sure that these gravitational waves and the gamma ray burst came from the same event. The key was to locate where in the sky this neutron star merger occurred. Unlike a merger of black holes neutron stars emit light when they smash together and continue emitting electromagnetic radiation afterwards. The Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope identified a large patch of the sky roughly the size of six thousand full moons. Using the European Space Agency’s integral gamma-ray satellite, they were able to narrow down that range. Now, the gravitational waves detected by LIGO allowed them to identify two long strips in the sky, one of which overlapped with the existing search area. Now, interestingly, Virgo, which is the newest gravitational wave detector, which is in Italy – it was online at the time, and it should have easily been able to detect these gravitational waves, and yet it saw almost nothing, and that was kind of a key clue, because it indicated that the gravitational waves must be coming from one of that detector’s blind spots. Every interferometer has some blind spots where, if the waves are coming at that angle, it’s symmetric with respect to the two arms and so it just can’t be detected. So this helped further narrow the search area down to the size of about 144 full moons. Now, within that area, around fifty galaxies were identified to be studied with optical telescopes, and just 11 hours after the initial detection astronomers located a bright spot in the galaxy NGC 4993. You are seeing here pictures of the light from two neutron stars that merged 130 million years ago. Watch how the color and brightness changes in the aftermath of the collision. So what are neutron stars? Well, they’re the leftover cores of big stars that have exploded – they’ve gone supernova. Now, those remaining cores are squeezed down by gravity and if they’re too big, say larger than two or three solar masses, well, they will keep on getting crushed until they collapse in on themselves forever and become a black hole. But if those cores are a little smaller, say 1.1 and 1.6 times the mass of our Sun, as they were in this case, well, then they get squeezed still and so electrons merge with protons to form neutrons and neutrinos and the neutrinos take off and the neutrons are left in a really, really densely packed star. And the only reason the neutrons don’t combine with each other is because of a quantum principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, that basically says you can’t put two of these particles right on top of each other, and that’s actually the only thing holding that neutron star up. So, if you have two of these neutron stars and they are orbiting each other, well, then they emit some of their energy as gravitational waves, and as they do that they lose energy, meaning they spiral in closer to each other and when they get really close, say a few hundred kilometers apart, the gravitational waves become intense, allowing us to detect them hundreds of millions of light years away. The collision of neutron stars creates a kilonova which spews debris out into space. This is debris that glows, allowing us to observe what’s been created – and, in fact, the new observations with light telescopes have shown that heavy elements like gold, lead and platinum were made in this event, and that helps us understand where a lot of the heavy elements in our universe come from. In my view, this event really shows us that we’re in a new age of astronomy. We can detect gravitational waves, not just from black holes, but now from neutron stars, we can use that information to locate places in the sky where that occurred and we can validate that with our other telescopes looking in all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. So, now we really have more tools to understand our universe and I just can’t wait for the questions that we’re going to address next and all of the different things we’re going to be able to study as the gravitational wave observatories get better and better. It’s a phenomenal time to be studying the universe. Outro signal.

100 thoughts on “Neutron Star Merger Gravitational Waves and Gamma Rays

  1. The elements formed in these stages range from oxygen through to iron. During a supernova, the star releases very large amounts of energy as well as neutrons, which allows elements heavier than iron, such as uranium and gold, to be produced. In the supernovaexplosion, all of these elementsare expelled out into space.
    If true, RADICAL change to the foundations of Physics is coming

  2. I visited Virgo some 10 years ago and it was very fascinating, but at the time they had never detected anything and funds where low. Now it really is a great time for astrophysics!

  3. Damn, 130 mln years ago we barely mutated to mammals. Countless mutations and generations later, homo sapiens came to be and ultimately build the tech to detect an event that happened before we ever had a chance to exist.

  4. It is interesting that the gravitational waves from the merger of neutron stars are similar to the gravitational waves from the merger of black holes. It does suggest that a black hole is simply a neutron star with an event horizon. You can make a calculation using the Schwarzschild Radius formula which shows that a neutron star of more than 3.4 solar masses will form an event horizon and be seen as a black hole.

    See appendix 7 in this paper:

    https://www.academia.edu/5009126/The_evolution_of_the_universe

    This is why the smallest black hole is greater than 3.4 solar masses and the largest neutron star observed is less than 3.4 solar masses.

    So a black hole and a neutron star are the same thing, it is just that a black hole is a neutron star with sufficient mass to form an event horizon. I look forward to the observation when two merging neutron stars of around 2 solar masses merge to form a black hole of just under 4 solar masses.

    Richard

  5. Why is there a 11 hours difference in time of the detection of gravitational wave and the observation of the collision? Shouldn't the light and the gravitational wave hit the earth at the same time since they travel at light speed?

  6. So, our planet consists of so old parts… 🙂 Our planet is the result of one or more died stars. Or our planet is the dead body of a star. 😉
    And how our so small planet has so big assorty of attoms? 🙂

  7. light and gravity have the same speed. they must me related right? What if light distorts space like if space itself is the medium that light waves pass through and these waves due to stretching space as a side effect cause more space and more space creates that warping of space that causes planets to drift toward each other. It's like a lens. More lens causes light to bend toward the area of more lens. More space causes objects paths to bend. But the more space isn't one big smooth bending of space like on a trampoline but trillions of tiny warpings of space by electromagnetic waves. That would also produce more space. Just as the coastline of an island is immeasurably big. If the coastline were smooth it would have less coastline.

  8. 내 수명 중에 인간이 어디까지 도달할수 있을지가 너무 궁금하고 기대되서 참을수가 없음 내일 뒤져도 상관없으니 시간을 빨리감기 하고 싶을지경임

  9. Представим, что кто то резко стал великаном ростом от Венеры до Юпитера. Отбросим в сторону условия для его жизни типа воздуха, давления, температуры и т.п. Что было бы возможным для такого великана? Смог бы он бросить Плутоном в Солнце? Или растормошить и вытрести душу из какого-нибудь Газового Гиганта, как бы сказывалась на нём гравитация. Смог ли бы он как то передвигаться? Может быть цеплялся за планеты и отталкиваясь от них мог бы перемещаться? И что если бы он положил руку на Венеру? И с какой бы скоростю двигалось моё веко во время моргания.?Ну в общем всё всё всё что только можно будет попробовать.

  10. great set of videos, can't wait for the next, i have a question, as the gravitational waves are used to alert the telescopes to look at a direction is it then safe to assume that gravitaional waves are faster than the speed of light,,,

  11. 130 million year ago !? , Okay how are the scientist now seeing those things !? I mean the data which is apprearing are 130 million year old!?
    Can you please explain how scientist calculating these things and what are they seeing now !?
    So how to dected the present senario !?

  12. what if the earth wobbles like a water-filled balloon due to some unknown geological phenomenon. So then does this experiment still valid?. Ideally, this experiment must be done in space.

  13. Лайк, если учишь английский по научпоп видосам:3

  14. So, the event was located at 130 million light years away and the gama rays reached us just 1.7 sec after the gravitational waves produced.
    1.7 sec difference in 130 million years is a very very…very small difference. It looks like the speed of gravity is the same than the speed of light after all.

  15. The sensitivity of the LIGO instruments is amazing!
    The gravitational waves they measured had a wavelength of one thousands of the diameter of a proton.

  16. Alguien se dió cuenta que finalizando el vídeo al man se le salió un gallo? Jajaja es chistoso y triste por qué nadie va a entender este comentario :''(

  17. The world has to be at peace if you want countries to work together. I wonder how many scientists would collaborate if their own governments threatened them against sharing information across borders. Hooray for world peace and humanity united for the pursuit of knowledge and advancement! I like how I learned how neutrons and neutron stars react with each other. You can call me kilonova

  18. Do the gravitational waves carry energy (on top of spactime) that make the waves? Or is the "energy" inside of spacetime's fabric propagating out around the universe?

    I want to know if there is energy riding with the waves or is the energy transferred into spacetime's "fabric" causing gravity that has separated from its original source. Gravity that is independent of mass…

  19. So even gravitational waves travel at the speed of light, huh? No more and no less. Interesting. So convenient in detecting the event visually too. Interesting also that VIRGO, the european one, didn't detect anything. Those damn blind spots.
    One would go as much as to suspect they're trying to justify spending 1.3 billion tax payer money for nothing.
    But what do I know, I'm just a dumb peasant abusing his weak critical thinking capacity.

  20. LIGO detected discrete interplanetary-Earth feedbacks known as magnetospheric sawtooth boundary/particle injection events, which are day-minute correlated to activity of Earth-facing coronal holes, sunspot number, TGFs, substorms, and other periodic space weather. GOES and ACE record these fluctuations, with superimposed 5-minute pulsed globally-coherent CG lightning discharges and ground magnetometer data, coincident with phase-locked quasiperiodic LIGO "noise." Major thunderstorms were active in the line-of-sight, displaying this burst behavior, of LIGO detectors during GW triggers. Several unbiased analyses on LIGO data that I have conducted are available:
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/progress-on-ligo-event-analysis-here.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/continent-wide-blitzortung.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/httpswww.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/gw170817-occurs-at-green-bar.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/a-days-work-in-excel-of-all-places.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/srchttpswww.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/blog-post.html
    https://fulguritics.blogspot.com/2018/06/roger-penrose-penrose-2017-may-be.html

  21. "No more doubt…" LIGO GW required several trigger times to reveal any pattern to their arrival times and correlations between their energy, distance, masses; the incompatibility of LIGO objects as a class with all other known BHs and, now, neutron stars should be considered as evidence of foreground effects, poor signal processing, bad statistical modeling, or an entirely different class of transients than BHs and NSs. We know from responses to the Creswell 2017 paper by LIGO, and further work by Akhila Raman, that poor signal processing and bad statistical models are accepted by LIGO and biased peer reviewers as standard and sufficient to approach false alarm rates and precision error so extremely small.

  22. It's funny how Eastern Time refers to a time zone that it in the Western hemisphere. Another instance of Americans thinking the world revolves around them?

  23. Wo kann man denn die entsprechenden Signale sich anhören?
    Eine andere Sache: Habt ihr euch noch nie Gedanken darüber gemacht, ob Gravitationswellen auch Einfluss nehmen oder sogar Eindruck auf das Botenstoffsystem hirnphysiologischer Prozesse? Mein Mann hat sich damit beschäftigt. 1987 betreffend – 7 Jahre vorher und 7 Jahre nachher – in der Mitte der Nullpunkt zur Zeit der Supernova 1987 A – und beobachtet, wie sich die Fluktutationen des globalen Sprachgebäudes anders verhielten, sich veränderten.
    Jeder kann heute, wenn er Rückblick hält, erkenne, dass ab 1987 viele globale Verhaltensweisen, auch in der Politik eine Wende nahmen. Erst mal soviel dazu.

  24. The entire field of cosmology is a hack job, they invent physical phenomenon that has not been observed and omit the ones that contradict their narrative.

  25. Look at this  guy, inventing a very elaborate story, from just a light emanating from the darkness of space, if you believe this, I would love to sale you a Bridge in Brooklyn, cheap!

  26. Newton's Law; for every action there's a opposite reaction, is still held Supreme and gives the universe stability.
    The Pauli exclusion principle keeps neutrons from collapsing any further, and according to this hack theory, it is the force of gravity which keeps this bogus neutron star intact. He also forgot the Heisenberg principal which is a corollary principle, that states;  the more the confinement of matter the greater the outward momentum, there by  countering further increase in density. This momentum  is vectored against gravitational force preventing black hole or neutron star from forming.But let us not mention that, it will spoil everything.

  27. This guy is too enthusiastic. It is estimated by astronomers that if a detector covered the whole sky, all of the time, we'd detect about 2 GRBs per day on average, so one event correlation would still be accidental coincidence and may not be real, more would be is needed to affirm the conclusions, there is plenty of room to be wrong. How many flashes do you think there are in our sky in one day?
    Nevertheless , it's Amazing. How out of one chirp you can get such a convoluted story…Well, I guess, if they don't , they will run out grant money. I predict this is going to be the debacle of the century.

  28. Something interesting I heard in this video. "The neutron stars emit gravitational waves and in so doing lose energy and this is what causes them to eventually get close enough to merge" this is a paraphrase, not exact wording. I would like to know why they are emitting gravitational waves, and does everything in the universe emit gravitational waves, I mean does anything that has mass emit (no matter how incredibly small) gravitational waves

  29. "…more tools to understand our universe…" Cool. Bear in mind one of the last YouTube clips I saw was Kurzgesagt telling us how we're creating such a cloud of tiny deadly debris in low earth orbit we won't be able to have stuff up there any more soon (cell-phone and weather satellites too, in case you don't care about science stuff up there.) That implies there'll be a lot less tools to understand our universe. No Hubble, Chandra, JamesWebb etc… Perhaps we should ramp up efforts to deal with space debris before it truly is out of hand (bummer we couldn't have done this 20-30 years ago when we first noticed the problem.)

  30. Is it possible that this is also at play with binary stars and we have not seen the event conclusion not sure if this sounds stupid but would be a wonderful thought experiment anyways

  31. I think there is a mistake. if light takes 130million year to reach earth then gravitional waves should take more time then light so how did u guys decided that there are same from same collision?

  32. Thank you for another great element of truth. S–A has it as #10 greatest story in science in their 2018 Collectors Edition

  33. That and things like this just blow my mind…unbelievable…I am speechless…and on the other side there are still ppl that think the earth is flat -_-

  34. In the graph against light and gravitational waves i saw the gravitational wave is detected first and then the light. So can we say that gravitational waves travel faster than light. And we broke the rule that nothing can travel faster than light.

  35. I hate to bust your bubble, but In reference to this signal (so called gravitational wave), Has a flaw which needs to be addressed and that is LIGO False positive Issue, the problem is the methods used to Extract the signal from the sea of noise (which has a amplitude smaller than the atomic nuclei), the researchers use a predetermined template scheme that Introduces a bias in these observations which would lead to a false positive signal. Also the expected signal called the chirp which Exhibits a low to a higher frequency signature may be due to many other natural phenomena. There is also a problem when associating Signal (chirps) with cosmic events; There are three natural relationships: similarity, contiguity and cause and effect. Of these, the causes and effects it is the most problematic where the narrative does not have a connecting principle, but instead it is artificially juxtaposed by the mind, and not real. In other words, how many of these events could be associated artificially and are not real. How many of these events occur in the Universe and are accidentally and wrongly associated. This is a problem that has not been answered beyond a shadow of a doubt. This is a prediction; they will find that these types of phenomena is Very common and are not related to black holes or neutron stars, but are part of background local noise. It Is going to be the biggest debacle in Scientific history! Similar to the epicycles of the past.

  36. Neutron stars are hypothetical objects ! And the signal is a hypothetical interpretation, based on the existence of this hypothetical object.

  37. Well here is a dose of Veritasium; the concept of the black hole or neutron stars violates universal law, as follows Explosions will never yield something greater than what it started with. If mass is energy and explosions takes place which implies an expenditure of energy or a lost of mass which will produce less gravity (less gravitational energy) specially , when considering a sphere gravitational energy (newton Mechanics’) is concentrated on the surface. In insisting that a explosions creates something of greater gravitational energy is to violate the laws of nature (Conservation of energy) in other words, you’re claiming perpetual machine. This presentation on black hole is total hogwash!

  38. Singularity and infinities
    Infinities and inconsistent reasoning. Here is an argument; in general relativity the equation called the Lorenz transform https://goo.gl/images/5vrm6H is used to calculate the limits of mass acceleration which basically is one over square root of 1- v/c where v= velocity of the moving object and c= Universal speed of light , note when v approaches the velocity of light the ratio v/c will equals 1 therefore the divisor becomes Zero, that is, you are dividing by zero (infinity is the result), which According to the theory of relativity means matter cannot be accelerated to the speed of light, or matter can not Exceed the speed of light, it is prohibited, because you cannot divide by zero (which would yield infinities). And this is perfectly reasonable argument, because this has been confirmed by particles accelerators, incidentally the discipline of particle physics which also interprets infinities results as a Indicator of an incorrect theory. But in black hole Schwarzschild equation which states the radius of the Events horizon ~ 1/(r x c^2) where r is the radius of the singularity which equals zero when black hole status is reached, we have a mathematical scenario which we are Again dividing by zero. And yet this is interpreted as acceptable, this infinity would allows matter to be compressed to infinity, a preposterous interpretation. Yet the opposite Interpretation is rendered when general relativity and in particle physics are Involved. Only in Astrophysics is these infinity results are Considered to be valid , and nowhere else, this is inconsistent Reasoning. why is this excepted?

  39. Gravitational wave and its problems, explained
    Lovely, beware of one hand clapping. Now for the bad news, In reference to this signal( gravitational wave) here is something to consider LIGO False positive; the problem is that the methods used to Extract the signal From a sea of noise and the interpretation of such a signal signal. The signal amplitude is smaller then a atomic nuclei a it must be filtered out from a sea of noise, the methods used is highly dubious, because the investigator introduces a predetermined template comparator that may introduce a bias in these extractions (observations). Furthermore, the filtering processing requires a inordinate amount of data processor or data comparison in Searching for the predetermined signature of a chirps, which starts with a low and moves to a higher frequency, may also be the characteristics of many other natural phenomena, not related to gravity. There is also another problem, interpretation of the source, at is, to associate the Signal (chirps) with a Specific cosmic events (Gamma burst, x-ray emissions). There are three natural relationships: similarity, contiguity and cause and effect. Of these, the causes and effects it is the most problematic where the narrative does not have a connecting principle, but instead it is artificially juxtaposed by the mind and not real. In other words, how many of these events could be associated artificially and are not real. How many of these events occur in the Universe and are accidentally and wrongly associated. This is a problem that has not been answered beyond a shadow of a doubt.
    This is a prediction; they will find these type of phenomena (chirps) are very common in the environment and are not related to black holes. It Is going to be the biggest debacle in Scientific history! Similar to the epicycles of the past.

  40. If you put a black hole in between sun and earth, and you make the sun disappear. The gravitational wave will travel through black hole and reach earth in speed of light, but the sun light will be distorted by the black hole and circulate black hole several times before it leaves black hole orbit and went towards earth. which means the gravity of sun will disappear earlier than sun light. Also, if you put a large body of water or cosmic dust in-between sun and earth, light will slow down, but gravitational wave won't slow down.

  41. How come they picked up the gamma rays seconds after the gravitational waves. Aren't gravitational waves instant since it's a force. And we only see the light of that system 100** million years ago (is that when the collision occurred?)

  42. we detect gravitational waves. but we cannot describe the function of gravity itself in absolute terms.

    science is odd.

  43. I understand it on a basic level like this is presented… however, it makes me feel stupid because there is so much I know I can't wrap my head around…

  44. "There can be no doubt…"?

    Science consists of two wings, The theoretical and the pragmatical. If this discovery can be put to use, then fair play. So far, only Kepler's laws, Doppler Shift, Boyle's Law, and a few others, have worked out for practical purposes in astronomy. All the rest, like Time and Space are conjectural. BTW, Maths is not physics: maths is an abstraction of the world, it doesn't actually exist, whereas physics is real. We landed a man on the moon, and took high-quality photos of Pluto, using what we know for sure in physics.

    Theoretical physics, like black holes and space-time and the Big Bang, are speculations, and never actually observed. Computer models and out-of-this-world maths, and the backing of half-wit professors pleading with the bursary for a hand-out, is not science, it is buffoonery.

    Lets get real: can you cure cancer? Or don't you give a damn about the real world?

    Gravity waves? Is it even a wave? A quantum particle, maybe. Or even something else? More research is needed, more funding, bigger computers, better staff, more money…

  45. Explosions will never yield something greater than what it started with. If mass is energy and explosions takes place which implies an expenditure of energy or a lost of mass which will produce less gravity (less gravitational energy) specially , when considering a sphere gravitational energy is concentrated on the surface. In insisting that a explosions creates something of greater gravitational energy is to violate the laws of nature (Conservation of energy) in other words, you’re claiming perpetual machine. This presentation is total hogwash

  46. The quantum Microscope LIGO
    It is appalling the lack of self assessment in the scientific community, relating to this LIGO chirp.
    Possibilities; Microscope LIGO device is actually a seismic instrument, for detecting and measuring activity in the quantum environment, what is referred to as the quantum foam or ether. What is this “foam “ ? Well, John Wheeler derived the concept of the “quantum foam” in 1955. It is also referred to as spacetime foam and bears a superficial resemblance to the old concept of the ether (or Aether).
    So inadvertently these scientists have entered the realm of the Quantum environment, and are listening into a new phenomenon called Quantum foam which physicists describe to be a place of violent activity of the quantum world. …the chirp is nothing more than the pops and crackles of this quantum environment and are not related to black holes.

  47. My mom told me to stop watching so many dumb videos on my phone. 90% of the stuff I've watched in the past couple weeks is Veritasium.

  48. Aren't these all picked out of tens of thousands of possible candidates on a computer catalog?
    Are the g-waves faster than the light?
    The other one had a blind spot???
    XD

  49. Crothers, S.J., Time Warps And The M87 ‘Black Hole’,

    https://principia-scientific.org/time-warps-and-the-m87-black-hole/

    Stephen Crothers on the Synthetic Imaging of EHT’s “First Image of a Black Hole” in M87, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoyIEGCIDXQ&feature=youtu.be&fbclid=IwAR2LYX1D6GtL9QESmwEGRwr1XkDk96lo_pEiPtzVPAQcdnpGjZO_HEGzOv0

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