Ludo (board game)

Ludo , is a board game for two to four players,
in which the players race their four tokens from start to finish according to die rolls. Like other cross and circle games, Ludo is
derived from the Indian game Pachisi, but simpler. The game and its variants are popular in many
countries and under various names. History
Pachisi originated in India by the 6th century. The earliest evidence of this game in India
is the depiction of boards on the caves of Ajanta. This game was played by the Mughal emperors
of India; a notable example being that of Akbar. Variations of the game made it to England
during the late 19th century. One which appeared around 1896 under the name
of Ludo was then successfully patented. Nomenclature
In North America, the game is sold under the brand name Parcheesi. Variations of the game are sold under the
brand names Sorry!, Aggravation, and Trouble. In Germany, this game is called “Mensch ärgere
dich nicht” which means “Man, don’t get irritated”, and has equivalent names in Dutch, Croatian,
Serbian, Bulgarian, Russian, Slovak, Slovene, and Polish, where it is more commonly referred
to as Chińczyke”). In Greece, this game is called “Γκρινιάρης”
[Griniaris] referring to typical player behaviour. In Bulgaria, this game is known as “Не се
сърди човече” [Ne se sardi choveche]. In Czech, it’s called “Člověče, nezlob
se”. In Vietnam, it is called “Cờ cá ngựa”. In Sweden it is known as “Fia”, a name derived
from the Latin word fiat which means “so be it!” Common variations on the name are “Fia-spel”
and “Fia med knuff”. In Denmark and Norway though, the game is
known as Ludo. Ludo board Special areas of the Ludo board are typically
coloured bright yellow, green, red, and blue. Each player is assigned a colour and has four
tokens of matching colour. The board is normally square with a cross-shaped
game track, with each arm of the cross consisting of three columns of squares—usually six
squares per column. The middle columns usually have five squares
coloured, and these represent a player’s home column. A sixth coloured square not on the home column
is a player’s starting square. At the centre of the board is a large finishing
square often composed of triangles in the four colours atop the players’ home columns –
thus forming “arrows” pointing to the finish. Rules
Overview Two, three, or four may play. At the beginning of the game, each player’s
tokens are out of play and staged in one of the large corner areas of the board in the
player’s color. When able to, the players will enter their
tokens one per time on their respective starting squares, and proceed to race them clockwise
around the board along the game track. When reaching the square below the home column,
a player continues by racing tokens up the column to the finish square. The rolls of a cube die control the swiftness
of the tokens, and entry to the finish square requires a precise roll from the player. The first to bring all their tokens to the
finish wins the game. The others often continue play to determine
second-, third-, and fourth-place finishers. Rolls of the die
Each player rolls the die, the highest roller begins the game. The players alternate turns in a clockwise
direction. To enter a token into active play from his
staging area to his starting square, a player must roll a 6. If the player has no tokens yet in play and
does not roll a 6, the turn passes to the next player. Once a player has one or more tokens in play,
he selects a token and moves it forward along the track the number of squares indicated
by the die roll. If a player rolls a 6 he may choose to advance
a token already in play, or alternatively, he may enter another of his tokens into active
play. The rolling of a 6 earns the player an additional
roll in that turn. If the additional roll results in a 6 again,
the player earns an additional bonus roll. If the third roll is also a 6, the player
may not move a token and the turn immediately passes to the next player. Players must always move a token according
to the die value rolled, and if no move is possible, pass their turn to the next. A player may not end his move on a square
he already occupies. If the advance of a token finishes on a square
occupied by an opponent’s token, the opponent token is returned to its owner’s yard. The returned token may only be reentered into
play when the owner again rolls a 6. Variations To get a game started faster, some house rules
allow a player with no pieces on the board to bring their first piece into play on any
roll, on a 1 or a 6, or allow multiple tries to roll a 6. If a piece lands on the same space as the
another piece of the same colour, the moved piece must take the preceding space. If a player’s piece lands on another of their
own pieces, they are doubled and form a “block” which cannot be passed by any opponent’s pieces. Or in some variations may only be passed by
rolling a 6 or 1. Doubled pieces may move half the number if
an even number is thrown. A doubled piece may capture another doubled
piece. A board may have only four spaces in each
“home column”. All four of a player’s pieces must finish
in these spaces for the player to have finished the game. To speed the game up, extra turns or bonus
moves can be awarded capturing a piece or getting a piece home; these may grant passage
past a block. In Denmark and some other countries the board
has eight spaces marked with a globe and eight with a star. The globes are safe spaces where a piece cannot
be captured. The exception is that a player who has not
yet entered all pieces, can always enter a piece on a roll of 6. If the entry space is occupied by another
player’s piece, that piece is captured. Otherwise the entry spaces work like the other
globe spaces. A piece which would have landed on a star
instead moves to the next star. In some parts of Africa the following rules
are reportedly played: A doubled block also blocks trailing pieces
of the player who created the block, or blocks them unless they roll the exact number to
land on the block; additionally, the doubled block cannot move forward until the block
that landed upon it moves off again. This reduces the tactical advantage of a block
and makes the game more interesting. If the two players sitting opposite are partners,
the players can exchange numbers. There are four safety squares on the board,
like castle squares in Pachisi, as well as the safe home squares, where a piece may able
to move forwards or backwards and start their turn before previous player finishes. A piece landing on a square with an opponent’s
piece not only sends the opponent piece back to the starting area but also sends the landing
piece to its home square. A player cannot move their first piece into
the “home column” unless they have captured at least one piece of any of the opponents. In popular culture
In 1967 Ivor Cutler recorded an album titled Ludo with Beatles producer George Martin. In the “Requiem” episode of The Avengers,
John Steed claims that his cousin Demon Desmond is the world Ludo champion. In the music video for the song “The Name
of the Game” by the Swedish pop group ABBA, the four members of the group are shown playing
Fia-spel. In the 1951 novel The Hive by Camilo José
Cela, the character Ventura asks to borrow the Ludo from Doña Celia, the proprietress
of a house of assignations. See also
Cross and circle games References Bibliography External links
Pachisi The Online Guide to Traditional Games

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