Lecture 08

Lecture 08


Let us start this lecture with a thought process
Tough time does not last forever; but it makes you tougher forever So don’t get shy away
from tough time Fight with yourself so that you will be tougher So uhh before starting
let us recapitulate what we learnt in the last lecture We basically looked at various
aspect of the Physics like your optics and other things And the later on I moved to the
chemistry part how it was And then we looked at also little bit about uhh what you call
like games like ludo and then what we call Pachisi and then uhh your uhh snakes and ladders
and other things and then we also discuss about uhh what you call uhh other aspects
of the uhh I mean other arts form various things and then we moved into also the how
we can utilize the NCN technology of making roof in place of concrete or the RCC- Reinforce
concrete roof kind of things Let us now discuss about what you call problems
with the modern agricultural farming because we will be discussing it with agriculture
Agriculture is very important for the food As our ancestors says Anna Prathistha Dev
That means we need to have a food even for the God you know to exist So therefore it
is important And artificial fertilizers we are using and
so are the herbicide which is spoiling the soil and polluting the rivers lakes and water
resources In the name of growing more we are doing that And we are you know uhh as a result
the soils with the low organic matter content we are having and it became infertile and
our body is getting diseases And we are depending too much on the fertilizers As a result if
you look at our farmers are committing suicide because they are in death trap Of course we are trying to propagate a zero
budget you know farming And which was there earlier in our country Ok We should do that
And it is integrated with that Our ancestors were very aware how to do farming but we do
now know because of utilization of modern science and technology driven by the market
processes And greater amount of fertilizers needed year after year to produce same yield
of crop for example let’s say 10 years back for acre they are putting let’s say 10 kg
of urea But today you will have to produce at least
give something uhh may be uhh 30kg Then you know cost is increasing And the soil is getting
spoiled So as we are using also pesticides because the eco system is being spoiled because
of that and there is a imbalance because there is a pest and pray kind of things which will
be balancing each other So artificial pesticide what we are using We will stay on the soil
for longer time enter into our food chain and then we get diseases Artificial chemical
destroy the soil micro organism This modern people have not understood there is a lot
of micro organism which are working For that we you know nature works on that Even in our body it is there Even on the surface
of your skin it is there So we should not destroy They are the part of the nature They
are doing lot of work which we do not know understand No of course the modern science
has started realizing this But our ancestors were might be aware They were in the balance
That is the thing key what they have talked about it As a result this destruction of the
soil micro organism the poor soil structures and aeration problem there is a decreasing
of nutrient availabilities As I was telling pest and diseases become more difficult to
control as they becoming resistant to the artificial pesticide Because you pesticide put and they will get
resist you know resistance So that you go for a higher level of chemicals to have that
effect Then you know you are spoiling the whole soil water air and your body and then
so as a result the habitat loss also is going on So which is very important therefore whole
system we are in deep trouble in the name of what development Right And people are making
money and we are in trouble So this is not the way we should do Then what is the solution
Solution is basically go back to the farming the our ancestors doing but you need to do
research in such a way that you will have to handle the present situation because you
have spoiled now Now you will have to get back to the earlier
thing is not that easy Right Is it like that you have already put a arrow and then you
will have to take it back It will go and hit So it is a difficult dicey situation one has
to handle Therefore you need to Of course this farming has now come up from
the western name It is organic farming In India we call it as a Prakritik Krishi or
the natural farming which was very much there And this is organic farming is as old as Indian
civilization because ours is a agriculture country Even today 75% populations are rely
on the agriculture as a you know enterprise So it is the process of farming developed
and professed by your ancestors But we lost it And then you know we are now using their
technology They is being modified is coming now the organic
food food whatever available in mass and is much costlier than the when you are using
the what you call uhh artificial fertilizers and pesticide and herbicides So what is this
This is nothing but a mere business You know we are spoiled So therefore we are working
on that uhh zero budgets Lot of people are working I think some of you should look at
and some IITians after leaving the jobs they are doing that now in some pockets of India
in the interiors I am having some you know contact with them They have left the job They
are doing because they find this is more you know interesting and then uhh what you call
satisfying The British survey of 2000 village of Chengalpattu
in Tamil Nadu in 1762-1766 You know data says that yielding was around 12 tonnes of paddy
a hector which is much higher than whatever the urea whatever the artificial fertilizer
used It is the process of cultivation that organic farming or the natural farming what
we call is basically work in harmony with the nature unlike modern farming that was
against the Mother Nature So that is the important aspect which I am harping on this course That
science and technology should be aligned with the plans and the programs of the Mother Nature
than that of going against it That is the basic philosophy one has to put it which is
modern science and technology is unable to understand And that is why all problems are
coming Modern science is trying to solve one problem
but creating another 100 problems which cannot be solved Right So that is not the way Way
is that you understand plan and programs and other things align with that so that things
will be very natural So this process helps to achieve good crop yield without harming
the natural environment habitats When you talk about it is men animals insects micro
organism plants air water altogether It is not that you will you know look at in a it
is a holistic approach the whole approach it is not the part It is not that you know like what you call
it would not be the what you call BBC the whole reductionist it is not that we reduce
the thing and then we look at in a whole That is a main problem thing So you can look at
this data what I gave you Particularly this 12 ton in 2000 You can look at Anna Bahu Kurvita
by JK Baja and MD Srinivas They are having Centres for Policy Studies I have taken from
this you know website this data They have done some research there for the indigenous
knowledge system So I will just give you some data about the
quality of the food because quality of food is important for the health And if you look
at these are basically vegetables like you know Snap Beans Cabbage Letus Tomatoes and
spinach And this is minerals what it will be containing Calcium magnesium potassium
sodium manganese iron and copper This data I have taken from the uhh research conducted
by Firman E Bears & Rutgers University in the Natural Gardner Catalogue If you look at this is there is a term if
you look at one is organic right And other is conventional Ok Conventional means the
with urea with your pottas or any other chemicals you are using That is the traditional Ok Conventional
Organic means where you would not be using using natural things Ok Are you getting my
point So now if you look at let us say iron in the tomatoes If we use organic which is
natural farming what our ancestors were doing you will get 1938 milliequivalent You know
what is a milliequivalent A 1000’s of a gram in a some kind of things you know like
very small quantities A one litre or some kind of units for the saying that (())(10:26)
And this is one So you know that iron is very essential for
the what For our body All minerals are you know somewhere it is required So similarly
if you look at spinach or any other things it is like that If you look at sodium let
us say this is 650 and it is zero and this spinach 695 and this What I am trying to say
with this data that look if you do that it is having higher level of the minerals which
are required for the for our body We need not to take some vitamin tablets You know
like for as a supplement So it is important And why it is so I could have shown you may
be in agriculture when I talk about it I now remember I will show you What will be the
root size when you do naturally and what will be the root size when you do with with the
artificial uhh fertilizers So that question we will answer Let us now
look at irrigation systems If you look at irrigation you might be aware The introduction
you know the Grand anicut which is in Cauvery river which is quite old you know like something
2000 year old and all There is a river River Kollidam and river Cauvery They mix together
here and there is a you know the confluence the downstream confluence there is a anicut
which was being made in the Chola kingdom which is very old And this area irrigated
by ancient irrigation network you know is about something 69000 acres of land at that
time But after that there is a modification I don’t know this is now around 1 million
acres is increased Ok And this is a very old dam And most of that
dam if you look at having problems You know what are the problems in the modern dams what
being made by our modern engineers Any idea Silting Silting is the big problem Ok And
that is hardly may be 70 years 80 years These are 2000 years Student: Sir can you please mention the date
of this Grand anicut Professor: It is something around 2000 years
back We will be discussing about this when I will be talking irrigation system Ok So this Anicut was in you know need to
be maintained and there is a renovation work done by the British engineers in 1838 and
they were finding lot of problems with that They couldn’t manage well And then what
they did they uhh had a dialogue with the local people which at the time you know and
there they could get the solution They were very unsuccessful in the beginning to handle
this one They were thinking they can do because they were great engineers Ok and then they
learnt from the local people that is something 1874 Later Cotton who paid tribute to these
people native Indians who had instrumental in imparting the knowledge for making this
uhh success successful renovation of this Grand anicut What he says He says that it was from them
the native Indians; we learn how to secure a foundation in loose sand of unmeasured depth
Are you ready to learn from them now No na They had learnt He is saying 1874 when we
are under them And in fact what we learnt from them made the difference between financial
success and value They were you know always saying that we are putting money we are not
getting back But this local native people taught them how to do that For the Madras
river irrigation executed by our engineers have been from the first greatest financial
success of any engineer works in the world But we are not taking care of local knowledge
or the indigenous knowledge They had taken care Solely because we learnt from them with
this lesson about foundation we built bridges after learning that from the native people
They learnt how to build bridges weirs aqueducts and every kind of hydraulic work and it goes
on We are this deeply debted to the native engineers Where are these native engineers
Let me tell you it is also some of them are coming up Some of the people are working We
are not working They have revived the river the village people which was dead I will be talking about that when I will go
to irrigation system It is not don’t think that you people know the engineering Ok The
people who are uhh in the villager uneducated they do not know They know because I told
you science is nothing but a common sense at the best They are having better common
sense than all of us So therefore we should not looked down upon them rather work with
them and learn from them what we need So this is about a Natraj Temple Can you see
that It is very intricate How we can make it What are what are the method you need to
do All of you are engineers Tell me Casting What kind of casting How many castings you
are aware What kind of casting it will be And they had done long time back Ok It goes
back to the uhh what you call uhh even Harappan no no I think later on Ok This is known as
lost wax casting And this casting was being used right for making these intricate safe
Right And this is made of 5 metal which is known as Panchdhatu It is nothing but alloy People were knowing
the alloys And the metal uhh crafting has started in South India during 6 and 9 century
What you call C that is common era But before that it was there also And they are masters
by the Pallava dynasty And this method is basically known as the investment or the lost
wax casting method and which is being used today for casting of turbine blades Ok And
our ancestors didn’t do that for turbine blade They were doing for idols for other
things So and if you look at this is the iron pillar
You might be knowing rustless Western people spend lot of money and time to understand
what it is Why is it so They worked hard they couldn’t Right And this was being made by
if you look at it is a view of Ashokan Pillar now it is in Qutub Minar And a pillar at Vaishali
One of the edicts of Asoka which is 272- 231 reads: “Everywhere King Piyadasi” King
Piyadasi means basically Asoka erected two kinds of hospital hospital for people hospital
for animals as I told We are not only for the hospitals for the
people but also animals Today we don’t have hospital you know enough hospital to accommodate
our people That is the situation They were having for animals Forget about animals So
where there were no healing where there were no healing herbs for the people animals He
ordered that they be bought and planted Ok That was intricate things So if you look at
this as the portion I have taken This portion I have taken from region and magnified here
Right What you see This portion what you see What is the shape of this It is a if you look
at a Kalash kind of thing Ok How they are making these thing How I will fabricate this
These are the questions we will answer whenever we will be going to talk about iron making
and black smith metal working But you just talk about think I am saying inverted Kalash
Right Why is it there Because that is the signature of our civilization In your house
any auspicious occasion you will have Kalash And it will be filled fully with water Why
it is so Please ask this question And this is also reflected here so I will answer some
other time But you think about And this is about Sun Temple in Konark in
Orissa built by Ganga dynasty around 1250 CE and if you look at it is one of the wonders
in the world That is known as Black Pagoda And how was it built Was it but without any
engineering Because they were not Right but where those engineers have gone Do we recognize
them Do we teach these things how to do Do we how to maintain our temple Do you know
how to repair and you know maintain an existing temple No na So we need to do that because
the number of temples in India is so large it is impossible to believe that they were
created without any sound technologies Because the King Choda Ganga Dev he spent 12 years
of his savings of the whole kingdom for making a temple like this Do you think that you will give money unless
he was having faith in the technology If I want to give 500 rupees to anybody I will
think several times whether he can deliver me or not Right and he was a king So therefore
it was there And what technology did ancient people in India possess that made so many
of structures possible we lost it But we can revive it We can study it There might be some
scriptures somewhere So it is important because these temples are living till date existing
and we are using it We should learn it And how to maintain it So if you look at the Kedarnath temple and
it is a temple of something 2000 years people claims and before flash flood this temple
was like that You know all are the new structures Agreed After the flash flood what is there
This temple is where are the new structures Gone with the flash flood Why People say it
is a miracle I told no it is the technology what our ancestors have built Right So I mean
people were having that and then we need to look at it Similarly if you look at Pashupatinath Temple
and which was a you know built around 11th Century C and renovated in 17th Century And
this was the temple which is a lot of in a Pagoda base And we know that uhh this is a
height of 23 meters and 7 cms from the base of the Pinnacle It is a very you know long
temple And so if you look at this is temple lot of
structures were there And the earth quake you know it is a Richter scale of something
around 78 or something I am not remembering exactly It is a very high But what happened
The temple is remaining Rest of the things have gone That means it is the technology
that is it what So therefore we need to study that and the technologies And therefore let me tell you that what George
Bernard Shaw has told He says that Indian way of life provides the vision of natural
real way of life But today we don’t have that life We veil ourselves with unnatural
mask today You know he is saying that they are veiling their unnatural you know they
are cover their you know the mind and the body you know like consistness with unnatural
mass We are also doing And on the face of the India a tender expression which can carry
the mark of the Creator’s hand If you lead a natural balanced life integrated
with the mother nature you can know a lot of what you call intuitive knowledge from
the mother nature and you can do better science and engineering That is the I can interpret
in that Am I right My interpretation So let me moral of the story I would like to say
that we need to relook revive rejuvenate for the renaissance of our scientific culture
and heritage of glorious mother land that is Bharat what we call in modern time India So with this we will stop over here and we
are having a very journey of I was trying to tell you that what is the gamut of the
ancient Indian science and technology we are having And we have learnt that we are having
a lot of stuffs and lot of uhh you know technologies still existing in some pockets And those thing
has to be also renovated has to be maintained properly For that we need to learn and also
we need to look at the philosophy of the Indian science and technology which was unique because
it was integrated with the mother nature and not mechanised that way that it will spoil
the mind of a person Today you people are using all electronic
gadgets and then what you call your all those things getting engaged and you are spoiling
your mind Your intellectuality would not be blossomed unless you have a peace of mind
and a very tranquillity in that So we need to have a technology And I must tell you that
we need to go back to a technology which is need not to be automated unless otherwise
required Like for your blast furnace and some other
places where man cannot go you can robots and do that rest of the things we need to
have technology which will generate more jobs more mechanical and so that mind and body
and the spirit will be in balance So that is the basic philosophy of ancient technology
and it should be integrated with the modern mother nature So that we live a very fruitful
and productive and enjoyable life on this earth and make this earth a beautiful place
Thank you very much for listening to me And that is the essence of the philosophy of ancient
technology what I am trying to propagate Thank you very much

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