The oldest archaeological chess artifacts,
ivory pieces, were excavated in ancient Afrasiab, today’s Samarkand, in Uzbekistan, Central
Asia, and date to about 760, with some of them possibly older. The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic
and dates to 840–850, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi (800–870), a renowned Arab chess
player, titled Kitab Ash-shatranj (Book of the Chess).