Chennai | Wikipedia audio article

Chennai | Wikipedia audio article


Chennai ( (listen); also known by its former
name Madras (listen) or ) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located on
the Coromandel Coast off the Bay of Bengal, it is the biggest cultural, economic and educational
centre of south India. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the sixth most populous
city and fourth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. The city together with the adjoining
regions constitute the Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is the 36th-largest urban area
by population in the world. Chennai is among the most visited Indian cities by foreign
tourists. It was ranked the 43rd most visited city in the world for the year 2015. The Quality
of Living Survey rated Chennai as the safest city in India. Chennai attracts 45 percent
of health tourists visiting India, and 30 to 40 percent of domestic health tourists.
As such, it is termed “India’s health capital”. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing
country, Chennai confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.Chennai
had the third-largest expatriate population in India at 35,000 in 2009, 82,790 in 2011
and estimated at over 100,000 by 2016. Tourism guide publisher Lonely Planet named Chennai
as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015. Chennai is ranked as a beta-level
city in the Global Cities Index, and was ranked the best city in India by India Today in the
2014 annual Indian city survey. In 2015 Chennai was named the “hottest” city (worth visiting,
and worth living in for long term) by the BBC, citing the mixture of both modern and
traditional values. National Geographic mentioned Chennai as the only South Asian city to feature
in its 2015 “Top 10 food cities” list. Chennai was also named the ninth-best cosmopolitan
city in the world by Lonely Planet. In October 2017, Chennai was added to the UNESCO Creative
Cities Network (UCCN) list for its rich musical tradition.The Chennai Metropolitan Area is
one of the largest municipal economies of India. Chennai is nicknamed “The Detroit of
India”, with more than one-third of India’s automobile industry being based in the city.
Home to the Tamil film industry, Chennai is also known as a major film production centre.
In January 2015, it was ranked third in terms of per capita GDP. Chennai has been selected
as one of the 100 Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under Smart Cities Mission.==Etymology==The nativity of the name Chennai, being of
Telugu origin, is clearly proved by historians. It was derived from the name of a Telugu ruler
Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, father of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, a Nayak ruler who served
as a general under Venkata III of the Vijayanagar Empire from whom the British acquired the
town in 1639. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed,
dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company, even before the Chennakesava
Perumal Temple was built in 1646 while some scholar argue for the contrary.In 1996, the
Government of Tamil Nadu officially changed the name from Madras to Chennai. At that time
many Indian cities underwent a change of name. However, the name Madras continues in occasional
use for the city, as well as for places named after the city such as University of Madras,
IIT Madras, Madras Institute of Technology, Madras Medical College, Madras Veterinary
College, Madras Christian College. The name Madras originated even before the
British presence was established in India. There have been clear evidences that Madras
is not of alien origin. A Vijayanagar-era inscription dated to the year 1367 that mentions
the port of Mādarasanpattanam, along with other small ports on the east coast was discovered
in 2015 and it was theorised that the aforementioned port is the fishing port of Royapuram. There
are also suggestions that it may have originated from a Portuguese phrase mãe de Deus, which
means “mother of God”, due to Portuguese influence on the port city, specifically referring to
a Church of St. Mary. According to some sources, Madras was derived from Madraspattinam, a
fishing-village north of Fort St George. However, it is uncertain whether the name was in use
before the arrival of Europeans. The British military mapmakers believed Madras was originally
Mundir-raj or Mundiraj.==History==Stone age implements have been found near
Pallavaram in Chennai. According to the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), Pallavaram was a megalithic
cultural establishment, and pre-historic communities resided in the settlement.The region around
Chennai has served as an important administrative, military, and economic centre for many centuries.
During the 1st century CE, a poet and weaver named Thiruvalluvar lived in the town of Mylapore
(a neighbourhood of present Chennai). From the 1st–12th century the region of present
Tamil Nadu and parts of South India was ruled by the Cholas.The Pallavas of Kanchi built
the areas of Mahabalipuram and Pallavaram during the reign of Mahendravarman I. They
also defeated several kingdoms including the Cheras, Cholas and Pandyas who ruled over
the area before their arrival. Sculpted caves and paintings have been identified from that
period. Ancient coins dating to around 500 BC have also been unearthed from the city
and its surrounding areas. A portion of these findings belonged to the Vijayanagara Empire,
which ruled the region during the medieval period.The Portuguese first arrived in 1522
and built a port called São Tomé after the Christian apostle, St. Thomas, who is believed
to have preached in the area between 52 and 70 CE. In 1612, the Dutch established themselves
near Pulicat, north of Chennai.On 20 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company
along with the Nayak of Kalahasti Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, travelled to the Chandragiri
palace for an audience with the Vijayanager Emperor Peda Venkata Raya. Day was seeking
to obtain a grant for land on the Coromandel coast on which the Company could build a factory
and warehouse for their trading activities and was successful in obtaining the lease
of a strip of land about six miles long and one mile inland in return for a yearly sum
of five hundred lakh pagodas. The region was then primarily a fishing village known as
“Madraspatnam”. A year later, the Company built Fort St. George, the first major English
settlement in India, which became the nucleus of the growing colonial city and urban Chennai,
grew around this Fort. Post independence the fort housed the Tamil Nadu Assembly until
the new Secretariat building was opened in 2010, but shortly afterwards it was again
moved back to Fort St. George, due to a change in the Government.In 1746, Fort St. George
and Madras were captured by the French under General La Bourdonnais, the Governor of Mauritius,
who plundered the town and its outlying villages. The British regained control in 1749 through
the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle and strengthened the town’s fortress wall to withstand further
attacks from the French and Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore. They resisted a French siege
attempt in 1759 under the leadership of Eyre Coote. In 1769 the city was threatened by
Mysore and the British were defeated by Hyder Ali, after which the Treaty of Madras ended
the war. By the 18th century, the British had conquered most of the region around Tamil
Nadu and the northern modern–day states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, establishing
the Madras Presidency with Madras as the capital. Gradually, the city grew into a major naval
base and became the central administrative centre for the British in South India. With
the advent of railways in India in the 19th century, the thriving urban centre was connected
to other important cities such as Bombay and Calcutta, promoting increased communication
and trade with the hinterland. Sir Arthur Lawley was Governor of Madras from 1906 to
1911 and promoted modern agriculture, industry, railways, education, the arts and more democratic
governance. The Governor lived in Government House, Fort St George, and had a country home
at Guindy, with access to a golf course, hockey pitches, riding stables and the Guindy Horse
Racing Track. In the First World War as Red Cross Commissioner in Mesopotamia, he looked
after the welfare of Indian soldiers. Madras was the only Indian city to be attacked by
the Central Powers during World War I, when an oil depot was shelled by the German light
cruiser SMS Emden on 22 September 1914, as it raided shipping lanes in the Indian Ocean,
causing disruption to shipping.After India gained its independence in 1947, the city
became the capital of Madras State, which was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969. The violent
agitations of 1965 against the compulsory imposition of Hindi and in support of English
in India in the state marked a major shift in the political dynamics of the city and
eventually it had a big impact on the whole state. Because of Madras and its people, English
now exists in India, otherwise Hindi might have been made the sole official language
in India. On 17 July 1996, the city known as Madras was officially renamed Chennai,
in line with what was then a nationwide trend to using less Anglicised names. On 26 December
2004, an Indian Ocean tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai, killing 206 people in Chennai
and permanently altering the coastline. The 2015 Chennai Floods submerged major portions
of the city, killing 269 people and resulting in damages of ₹86.4 billion (US$1 billion).==Environment=====Geography===Chennai is located on the south–eastern
coast of India in the north–eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known
as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around 6.7 metres (22 ft), and
its highest point is 60 m (200 ft). Chennai is 2,184 kilometres (1,357 mi) south of Delhi,
1,337 kilometres (831 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 345 kilometres (214 mi) east of Bangalore
by road. Two major rivers flow through Chennai, the Cooum River (or Koovam) through the centre
and the Adyar River to the south. A third river, the Kortalaiyar, travels through the
northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The estuary
of this river is heavily polluted with effluents released by the industries in the region.
Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste from domestic and
commercial sources, the Coumm being so heavily polluted it is regarded as the city’s eyesore.
A protected estuary on the Adyar forms a natural habitat for several species of birds and animals.
The Buckingham Canal, 4 km (2.5 mi) inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two
rivers. The Otteri Nullah, an east–west stream, runs through north Chennai and meets
the Buckingham Canal at Basin Bridge. Several lakes of varying size are located on the western
fringes of the city. Some areas of the city have the problem of excess iron content in
groundwater. Chennai’s soil is mostly clay, shale and sandstone.
Clay underlies most of the city, chiefly Manali, Kolathur, Maduravoyal, K. K. Nagar, Tambaram,
Mudichur, Pallavaram Semmencherry, Alapakkam, Vyasarpadi and Anna Nagar. Sandy areas are
found along the river banks and coasts, and include areas such as Tiruvottiyur, George
Town, Madhavaram, New Washermanpet, Chepauk, Mylapore, Porur, Adyar, Besant Nagar and Uthandi.
In these areas, rainwater runoff percolates quickly through the soil. Areas having hard
rock surface include Guindy, Nanganallur, Pallikaranai, Alandur, Jaladampet, Velachery,
Adambakkam and a part of Saidapet and Perungudi. The ground water table in Chennai is at 4-5m
below ground in most of the areas, which was considerably improved and maintained through
the mandatory rain water harvesting system. Of the 24.87 km coastline of the city, 3.08
km experiences erosion, with sand accretion along the shoreline can be noticed at the
Marina beach and the area between the Ennore Port and Kosasthalaiyar river.===Geology===
Chennai is classified as being in Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage
from earthquakes. Owing to the geotectonic zone the city falls in, the city is considered
a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities
in the past. It is expected that temperatures of around 200 to 300 C° will be available
if the ground were drilled 4 to 5 km deep. The region has the oldest rocks in the country
dating back to nearly a billion years.===Flora and fauna===The southern stretch of Chennai’s coast from
Tiruvanmiyur to Neelangarai are favoured by the endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles to
lay eggs every winter. A large number of cattle egrets, pond herons and other waterbirds can
be seen in the rivers of Cooum and Adyar. About 75,000 birds migrate to Chennai every
year. Marshy wetlands such as Pallikaranai also play host to a number of migratory birds
during the monsoon and winter. Over 300 species of birds have been recorded in the city and
its neighbourhood by members of Madras Naturalists’ Society since its inception in 1978.
Guindy National Park is a protected area within the city limits. Wildlife conservation and
research activities take place at Arignar Anna Zoological Park including Olive
ridley sea turtle conservation. Madras Crocodile Bank Trust is a herpetology research station,
located 40 kilometres (25 mi) south of Chennai. It is India’s leading institution for herpeto
faunal conservation and the first crocodile breeding centre in Asia. The city’s tree cover
is estimated to be around 64.06 sq km. The most dominant tree species is the copper pod,
followed by Indian beech and Neem. A total of 121 species of trees belonging to 94 genera
and 42 families are found in the city.===Environment conservation===
Chennai has three rivers and many lakes spread across the city. Urbanization has led to shrinkage
of water bodies and wetlands. The quantity of wetlands in the city has decreased from
650 to only 27 currently. The Chennai River Restoration trust set up by the government
is working on the restoration of Adyar river. Environmentalist Foundation of India is a
volunteering group working towards wildlife conservation and habitat restoration.===Climate===
Chennai has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw). The city lies on the thermal
equator and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature.
The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, known regionally as Agni Nakshatram
(“fire star”) or as Kathiri Veyyil, with maximum temperatures around 35–40 °C (95–104
°F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 19–25 °C
(66–77 °F). The lowest recorded temperature was 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) on 11 December 1895
and 29 January 1905. The highest recorded temperature was 45 °C (113 °F) on 31 May
2003. The average annual rainfall is about 140 cm (55 in).The city gets most of its seasonal
rainfall from the north–east monsoon winds, from mid–October to mid–December. Cyclones
in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. The highest annual rainfall recorded is 257
cm (101 in) in 2005. Prevailing winds in Chennai are usually southwesterly between April and
October and north-easterly during the rest of the year. Historically, Chennai has relied
on the annual rains of the monsoon season to replenish water reservoirs, as no major
rivers flow through the area. Chennai has a water table at 2 metres for 60 percent of
the year.====NE Monsoon in Chennai====
The city of Chennai is located on the east coast of India, which is also known as the
Coromandel Coast. Chennai is largely dependent on NE monsoon,
since 65% of rains are received in this season. Cyclones and depressions are common features
during the season. Cyclones in particular are really unpredictable. They can even move
towards Orissa, west Bengal, Bangladesh, and also Myanmar. The season between October and
December is referred as the NE monsoon period. Floods are common during this period. In 2015
Chennai received record breaking rains since 1918, which caused massive floods.
The entire east coast is vulnerable to cyclones during the monsoon period. For example, in
2007 a major cyclone named “Cyclone Sidr” skipped Chennai and headed towards Bangladesh.
The result was a failure of NE monsoon in Chennai, that particular year. Even in the
past, there has been many occasions where Cyclones had a great influence in the monsoon.===Land usage===
As of 2018, the city had a green cover of 14.9 percent, against the World Health Organization
recommendation of 9 square meters of green cover per capita in cities. The city had a
built-up area of 71 percent. Waterbodies cover an estimated 6 percent of the total area,
and at least 8 percent of the area has classified as open space. As of 2017, the total volume
of water harvested was 339 mcft and groundwater recharge was 170 mcft.==Administration==Chennai city is governed by the Greater Chennai
Corporation (formerly “Corporation of Madras”), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest
surviving municipal corporation in India and the second oldest surviving corporation in
the world. In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation was expanded from 174
km2 (67 sq mi) to an area of 426 km2 (164 sq mi), dividing into three regions—North,
South and Central, which covers 200 wards. The corporation is headed by a mayor, an office
presently occupied by Saidai Sa. Duraisamy. The Mayor and councillors of the city are
elected through a popular vote by the residents. While the city limit was expanded in 2011,
the revised population is yet to be officially announced.
The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for
planning and development of Chennai Metropolitan Area, which is spread over an area of 1,189
km2 (459 sq mi), covering the Chennai district and parts of Tiruvallur and Kanchipuram districts.
The larger suburbs are governed by town municipalities and the smaller ones are governed by town
councils called panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 parliamentary and 28 assembly
constituencies. The CMDA has drafted an additional Master Plan that aims to develop satellite
townships around the city. The city’s contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the
south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur, Arakkonam,
Kanchipuram and Tiruvallur to the west.Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu,
houses the state executive and legislative headquarters primarily in the Secretariat
Buildings in the Fort St George campus. The Madras High Court, is the highest judicial
authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry.
Chennai has three parliamentary constituencies—Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South—and
elects 24 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.===Law and order===The Greater Chennai Police is the main law
enforcement agency in the city, with a jurisdiction of over 745 km2 (288 sq mi) catering to over
8.5 million people. It consists of 121 police stations and is headed by a commissioner of
police. The Greater Chennai Police is a division of the Tamil Nadu Police, and the administrative
control lies with the Tamil Nadu Home Ministry. Chennai City Traffic Police (CCTP) is responsible
for the traffic management in the city. The metropolitan suburbs are policed by the Chennai
Metropolitan Police, headed by the Chennai Police Commissionerate, and the outer district
areas of the CMDA are policed by the Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur police departments. As of 2011 (prior to the expansion of Chennai
Corporation area), Chennai city has a sanctioned strength of 14,000 police personnel. With
a population density of 26,903 persons per square kilometre, the city had 1 policeman
for every 413 people. The Chennai suburban police had about 4,093 police personnel and
a ratio of 1:1,222. In 2010, the crime rate in the city was 169.2 per 100,000 people,
as against an average of 341.9 in the 35 major cities of India. In 2011, North Chennai zone
had 30 police stations and 3 police out posts, Central Chennai zone had 28 police stations
and 3 police out posts, and South Chennai zone had 30 police stations.In 2009, Madras
Central Prison, one of the oldest prisons in India, built over 11 acres (4 ha) of land,
was demolished; the prisoners were moved to Puzhal Central Prison.===Politics===
Since the 19th century, when Western scholars proposed that Dravidian languages, which dominated
the southern region of India, formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan
languages that are predominant in the north of the subcontinent, the aspects of Tamil
nationalism gained prominence. This resulted in the Anti-Hindi agitations in the city and
across the state. However, the post-Independence re-organisation of Indian states according
to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for
separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more
popular and more powerful political force in the state. The agitations of the 1960s
played a crucial role in the defeat of the Tamil Nadu Congress party in the 1967 elections
and the continuing dominance of Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu politics. Being the capital of the Madras Province that
covered a vast area of the Deccan region, Chennai remained the centre of politics in
the southern region of India during the British colonial era. After Independence, it remained
the centre of political activities of the state of Tamil Nadu. Chennai is the birthplace
of the idea of the Indian National Congress, commonly known as the Congress Party. Founded
by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, most notably A.O. Hume,
the idea was originally conceived in a private meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention
held in the city in December 1884. During the first 50 years of the Indian National
Congress, the city played host to its conferences seven times in 1887, 1894, 1898, 1903, 1908,
1914 and 1927, becoming one of the strong bases for the Indian independence movement.
After independence, the city hosted the Congress in 1955 in its suburb of Avadi.Chennai is
also the birthplace of several regional political movements since the British era. South Indian
Welfare Association, one of the earliest regional parties, was founded in 1916, which later
came to be known as the Justice Party, which was the main opposition party to the Indian
National Congress in the state. In 1944, the party was renamed Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) by
E. V. Ramasami (popularly known as ‘Periyar’). The party was a non-political party that demanded
the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences
between its two leaders Periyar and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai
left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter into
politics in 1956.===Utility services===The city’s water supply and sewage treatment
are managed by the Chennai MetroWater Supply and Sewage Board. Water is drawn from Red
Hills Lake and Chembarambakkam Lake, the primary water reservoirs of the city, and treated
at water treatment plants located at Kilpauk, Puzhal, Chembarambakkam and supplied to the
city through 27 water distribution stations. The city receives 530 million liters per day
(mld) of water from Krishna River through Telugu Ganga project, 180 mld of water from
the Veeranam lake project and 100 mld of water from the Minjur desalination plant, the country’s
largest sea water desalination plant. However, Chennai is predicted to face a huge deficit
of 713 mld in 2026 as the demand is projected at 2,248 mld and supply estimated at only
1,535 mld. The city’s sewer system was designed in 1910, with some modifications in 1958.
There are 714 public toilets in the city managed by the city corporation, and 2,000 more have
been planned by the corporation. The corporation also owns 52 community halls across the city.The
Corporation of Chennai provides civic services to the city. Garbage collection in some of
the wards is contracted to Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited, a private company, while the Corporation
looks after the removal and processing of solid waste in the others, with a superintendent
engineer managing the channels. As of 2011, 8 transfer stations exist within the city
for treating the waste. Garbage is dumped in two dump-yards in the city—One in Kodungaiyur
and another in Pallikaranai, with a major portion of the latter covering the Pallikaranai
marshland. In market areas, the conservancy work is done during the night. Electricity
is distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board. Fire services are handled by the Tamil
Nadu Fire and Rescue Services. The city, along with the suburbs, has 33 operating fire stations.The
Chennai City Region has 568 post offices, of which nearly 460 operate from rented premises.==Architecture==With the history of many neighbourhoods of
the city such as Mylapore, Triplicane, and Tiruvanmiyur antedating that of the city,
the architecture of Chennai ranges in a wide chronology. The oldest buildings in the city
dates from the 7th and 8th centuries CE, which include the Kapaleeshwarar Temple in Mylapore
and the Parthasarathy Temple in Triplicane, built in the Dravidian architecture. This
architecture includes various styles, such as those of the Pallavas, the Cholas, and
the Vijayanagara empires. The associated Agraharam architecture, which consists of traditional
row houses surrounding a temple, can still be seen in these areas. The heritage temples
at Mamallapuram at the outskirts of the city are some of the examples of the Pallava architecture.
Chennai ranks second to Kolkata of Indian heritage buildings.With the advent of the
Mugals and the British, the city saw a rise in a blend of Hindu, Islamic and Gothic revival
styles, resulting in the distinct Indo-Saracenic style. The architecture for several early
institutions such as banking and commerce, railways, press and education, chiefly through
the colonial rule, followed the earlier directions of the Neo-Classical and the Indo-Saracenic.
The Chepauk Palace in the city, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic
building in India. Since then, many of the colonial-era buildings in the city were designed
in this style of architecture, which is most apparent around the Fort St. George built
in 1640. Most of these were designed by English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry
Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court (built in 1892), Southern
Railway headquarters, Ripon Building, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of
Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering.
The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue, at the Marina Beach is an important
landmark of Chennai. The construction of the National Art Gallery
in Madras was completed in 1909. The new building, with a stunning façade, was built of pink
sandstone brought from Sathyavedu, and formed part of the Madras Museum campus. It was opened,
on 23 January 1909, by the Governor of Fort St. George, Sir Arthur Lawley, and called
the Victoria Memorial Hall after the Queen-Empress Victoria. The residential architecture in
the city was based on the bungalow or the continuous row house prototypes. Gothic revival
style buildings include the Chennai Central and Chennai Egmore railway stations. The Santhome
Church, which was originally built by the Portuguese in 1523 and is believed to house
the remains of the apostle St. Thomas, was rebuilt in 1893 in neo-Gothic style.By the
early 20th century, the art deco too made its entry upon the city’s urban landscape.
From the 1930s onwards, many buildings in George Town were built in this style, including
the United India building (presently housing LIC) and the Burma Shell building (presently
the Chennai House), both built in the 1930s, and the Dare House, built in 1940. Other examples
include the Bombay Mutual building (presently housing LIC) and the South Indian Chamber
of Commerce building. After Independence, the city witnessed a rise
in the Modernism style of architecture. The completion of the LIC Building in 1959, the
tallest building in the country at that time, marked the transition from lime-and-brick
construction to concrete columns in the region. The presence of the weather radar at the Chennai
Port, however, prohibited the construction of buildings taller than 60 m around a radius
of 10 km for several decades that followed. In addition, the floor-area ratio (FAR) in
the central business district is also 1.5, much less than that of smaller cities of the
country. This resulted in the city expanding horizontally, unlike other metropolitan cities
where vertical growth is prominent. On the contrary, the peripheral regions, especially
on the southern and south-western sides, are experiencing vertical growth with the construction
of buildings up to 60 floors.==Demographics=====
Population===A resident of Chennai is called a Chennaite.
According to 2011 census, the city had a population of 4,646,732, within the area administered
by the Municipal Corporation; that had 11 lakh households, with 51% of them living in
rented houses. The city’s limits were expanded later in 2011 and its population reached 7,088,000
with Chennai Municipal Corporation being renamed as Greater Chennai Corporation.===Languages===
Tamils form the majority of Chennai’s population. English is spoken largely by white-collar
workers, often mixed into Tamil. In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8% of its
population) in the city, 61.5% were from other parts of the state, 33.8% were from rest of
India and 3.7% were from outside the country. As per the 2001 census, the number of speakers
mother tongue wise are as follows, Tamil is spoken by 3,424,107 (78.8%), followed by Telugu
by 419,209 (9.7%), Urdu by 180,245 (4.1%), Malayalam by 113,828 (2.6%), Hindi by 104,084
(2.4%), and Kannada by 22,250 (0.5%). Korean, Japanese, French, Mandarin Chinese, Russian,
German and Spanish are some of the languages spoken by the 2,50,000 foreign expatriates
residing in the city.===Religion and Ethnicity===Chennai, along with Bengaluru, Mumbai and
Delhi, is one of the few Indian cities that are home to a diverse population of ethno-religious
communities. Minorities include Telugus, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Parsis, Sindhis, Odias, Goans,
Kannadigas, Anglo-Indians, Bengalis, Punjabi, and Malayalees. As per the religious census
of 2011, Chennai’s population was 80.7% Hindu, 9.5% Muslim, 7.7% Christian, 1.1% Jain, 0.1%
Sikh, 0.1% Buddhist,

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